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  1. C. G. Abbott, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, “The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 74, No. 7.
  2. Herbert H. Kimball, “The distribution of energy in the visible spectrum of sunlight, skylight and the total daylight,” Proceedings International Congress on Illumination, 1928, p. 501.
  3. H. P. Gage, “Spectral distribution of solar radiant energy,” Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 34, 316 (1939).
  4. Kasson S. Gibson, “Approximate spectral energy distribution of skylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88A (1940).
  5. Kasson S. Gibson, “Filter for obtaining light at wave-length 560 mμ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 131 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. H. Taylor, “The color of daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930).

1940 (1)

Kasson S. Gibson, “Approximate spectral energy distribution of skylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88A (1940).

1939 (1)

H. P. Gage, “Spectral distribution of solar radiant energy,” Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 34, 316 (1939).

1935 (1)

1930 (1)

A. H. Taylor, “The color of daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930).

1928 (1)

Herbert H. Kimball, “The distribution of energy in the visible spectrum of sunlight, skylight and the total daylight,” Proceedings International Congress on Illumination, 1928, p. 501.

Abbott, C. G.

C. G. Abbott, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, “The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 74, No. 7.

Aldrich, L. B.

C. G. Abbott, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, “The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 74, No. 7.

Fowle, F. E.

C. G. Abbott, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, “The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 74, No. 7.

Gage, H. P.

H. P. Gage, “Spectral distribution of solar radiant energy,” Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 34, 316 (1939).

Gibson, Kasson S.

Kasson S. Gibson, “Approximate spectral energy distribution of skylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88A (1940).

Kasson S. Gibson, “Filter for obtaining light at wave-length 560 mμ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 131 (1935).
[Crossref]

Kimball, Herbert H.

Herbert H. Kimball, “The distribution of energy in the visible spectrum of sunlight, skylight and the total daylight,” Proceedings International Congress on Illumination, 1928, p. 501.

Taylor, A. H.

A. H. Taylor, “The color of daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Kasson S. Gibson, “Approximate spectral energy distribution of skylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88A (1940).

Kasson S. Gibson, “Filter for obtaining light at wave-length 560 mμ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 131 (1935).
[Crossref]

Proceedings International Congress on Illumination (1)

Herbert H. Kimball, “The distribution of energy in the visible spectrum of sunlight, skylight and the total daylight,” Proceedings International Congress on Illumination, 1928, p. 501.

Trans. I. E. S. (1)

A. H. Taylor, “The color of daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930).

Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. (1)

H. P. Gage, “Spectral distribution of solar radiant energy,” Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 34, 316 (1939).

Other (1)

C. G. Abbott, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, “The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars,” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 74, No. 7.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of apparatus used to measure the spectral distribution of energy in daylight.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral distribution of energy in direct sunlight, 10/3/39, color temperature 5335°K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral distribution of energy from the zenith sky. (A) 9/18/39, sky very clear, color temperature 60,000°K. (B) 9/14/39, p.m. sky hazy and smoky, color temperature 13,000°K. (C) 8/8/40, sky clear but smoky, color temperature 12,200°K. (D) 9/14/39, a.m. sky hazy and smoky, color temperature 8,800°K. These and all other curves are plotted on the basis of equal illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral distribution of energy from north sky incident on a 45° plane. (A) 9/18/39, sky clear, color temperature 12,600°K. (B) 8/8/40, sky clear but smoky, color temperature 10,000°K. (C) 9/28/39, sky clear but smoky, color temperature 9,640°K. (D) 11/15/39, sky clear but very smoky, color temperature 8,770°K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral distribution of energy on a horizontal plane illuminated by light from (A) a 75 percent overcast sky, 9/13/39, color temperature 7600°K; (B) a completely overcast sky, 10/11/39, color temperature 6510°K; (C) a completely overcast sky, 8/27/40, color temperature 6490°K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral distribution of energy on a horizontal plane illuminated by the sun and a fairly clear sky (A) on 9/28/39, color temperature 5960°K; (B) on 9/14/39, color temperature 6040°K; (C) on 8/21/40, color temperature 6100°K.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral distribution of energy on a horizontal plane from sun and sky when the sky was cloudless but very smoky. (A) on 8/8/40, color temperature 5680°K; (B) on 11/15/39, color temperature 4975°K.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Average energy distribution curves for the types of daylight shown on Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. (A) Zenith sky, color temperature 13,700°K. (B) North sky on 45° plane, color temperature 10,000°K. (C) Totally overcast sky, color temperature 6500°K. (D) Sun plus sky on horizontal plane, color temperature 6000°K. (E) Direct sunlight, color temperature 5335°K.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Section of the I.C.I. Colorimetry diagram, showing the location of points representing various phases of daylight with respect to the blackbody line. The diagonal lines represent various values of “micro-reciprocal degrees” (mireds).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Average color-temperatures of daylight for various seasons and weather conditions (light received on a horizontal plane).

Tables Icon

Table II Relative spectral energy distribution of five phases of natural daylight (averages), for which the curves are shown in Fig. 8, on the basis of equal illumination.