Abstract

The new official United States color standards for grading gum rosin are described and compared with the superseded 1923 Lovibond glass standards. The new standards are made of cemented combinations of Jena and Corning glasses, and show a better spectral match with rosin, higher luminous transmission, more regular spacing of colors on a chromaticity scale, and are more solidly constructed than the old standards. Spectral transmission curves for rosins and the glass standards are shown. The standard colors are specified in terms of the 1931 I.C.I. colorimetric coordinate system with its standard observer and standard illuminant C. Chromaticity tolerances are established for duplicate standards.

© 1940 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Charles E. Smith, “History of the Development of Naval Stores Inspection and Standards.” Naval Stores Rev. 42, No. 46, 16 (1933); Naval Stores Rev. 42, No. 47, 10 (1933). Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 3 (1933); Oils and Paints 48, No. 4 (1933). Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter (Feb.6, Feb.27, 1933).
  2. B. A. Brice, “A Color Analysis of the U.S. Rosin Standards,” Naval Stores Rev. 43, Nos. 5, 6 (1933); American Ink Maker 11, No. 5, 27 (1933); Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 4, 136 (1933).
  3. B. A. Brice, “Some Reasons for Modifying the U. S. Rosin Standards,” Naval Stores Rev. 43, No. 30, 6 (1933); Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 10, 380 (1933); Soap 9, No. 11, 23 (1933); Paint, Oil, and Chem. Rev. 95, No. 26, 8 (1933).
  4. K. S. Gibson, G. K. Walker, and M. E. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  5. The weak absorption band near 650 mμ present in most gum rosins, but not in wood rosins, is probably due to chlorophyll or a derivative. A weak band near 750 mμ is interpreted as an overtone band due to OH vibration in the resin acids.
  6. K. S. Gibson and F. K. Harris, (1927).
  7. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 72 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  9. See p. 363 of reference 7.
  10. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  11. See p. 360 of reference 7.

1935 (1)

1934 (1)

K. S. Gibson, G. K. Walker, and M. E. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
[Crossref]

1933 (4)

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
[Crossref]

Charles E. Smith, “History of the Development of Naval Stores Inspection and Standards.” Naval Stores Rev. 42, No. 46, 16 (1933); Naval Stores Rev. 42, No. 47, 10 (1933). Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 3 (1933); Oils and Paints 48, No. 4 (1933). Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter (Feb.6, Feb.27, 1933).

B. A. Brice, “A Color Analysis of the U.S. Rosin Standards,” Naval Stores Rev. 43, Nos. 5, 6 (1933); American Ink Maker 11, No. 5, 27 (1933); Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 4, 136 (1933).

B. A. Brice, “Some Reasons for Modifying the U. S. Rosin Standards,” Naval Stores Rev. 43, No. 30, 6 (1933); Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 10, 380 (1933); Soap 9, No. 11, 23 (1933); Paint, Oil, and Chem. Rev. 95, No. 26, 8 (1933).

1932 (1)

Brice, B. A.

B. A. Brice, “A Color Analysis of the U.S. Rosin Standards,” Naval Stores Rev. 43, Nos. 5, 6 (1933); American Ink Maker 11, No. 5, 27 (1933); Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 4, 136 (1933).

B. A. Brice, “Some Reasons for Modifying the U. S. Rosin Standards,” Naval Stores Rev. 43, No. 30, 6 (1933); Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 10, 380 (1933); Soap 9, No. 11, 23 (1933); Paint, Oil, and Chem. Rev. 95, No. 26, 8 (1933).

Brown, M. E.

K. S. Gibson, G. K. Walker, and M. E. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
[Crossref]

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, G. K. Walker, and M. E. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
[Crossref]

K. S. Gibson and F. K. Harris, (1927).

Harris, F. K.

K. S. Gibson and F. K. Harris, (1927).

Judd, D. B.

Smith, Charles E.

Charles E. Smith, “History of the Development of Naval Stores Inspection and Standards.” Naval Stores Rev. 42, No. 46, 16 (1933); Naval Stores Rev. 42, No. 47, 10 (1933). Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 3 (1933); Oils and Paints 48, No. 4 (1933). Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter (Feb.6, Feb.27, 1933).

Walker, G. K.

K. S. Gibson, G. K. Walker, and M. E. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58 (1934).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Naval Stores Rev. (3)

Charles E. Smith, “History of the Development of Naval Stores Inspection and Standards.” Naval Stores Rev. 42, No. 46, 16 (1933); Naval Stores Rev. 42, No. 47, 10 (1933). Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 3 (1933); Oils and Paints 48, No. 4 (1933). Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter (Feb.6, Feb.27, 1933).

B. A. Brice, “A Color Analysis of the U.S. Rosin Standards,” Naval Stores Rev. 43, Nos. 5, 6 (1933); American Ink Maker 11, No. 5, 27 (1933); Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 4, 136 (1933).

B. A. Brice, “Some Reasons for Modifying the U. S. Rosin Standards,” Naval Stores Rev. 43, No. 30, 6 (1933); Drugs, Oils and Paints 48, No. 10, 380 (1933); Soap 9, No. 11, 23 (1933); Paint, Oil, and Chem. Rev. 95, No. 26, 8 (1933).

Other (4)

The weak absorption band near 650 mμ present in most gum rosins, but not in wood rosins, is probably due to chlorophyll or a derivative. A weak band near 750 mμ is interpreted as an overtone band due to OH vibration in the resin acids.

K. S. Gibson and F. K. Harris, (1927).

See p. 360 of reference 7.

See p. 363 of reference 7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral transmission curves for gum rosin samples selected to match in color the 1936 glass standards.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral transmission curves for the 1923 Lovibond glass standards with clear components removed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral transmission curves for the master set of the 1936 U.S. standards for rosin.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral transmission curves for glass components used in the 1936 standards.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chromaticity spacing of standard colors in terms of differences Δx between x trilinear coordinates for successive standards on the I.C.I. coordinate system; I for 1936 master standards; II for 1923 master standards; III spacing for 1936 master standards in terms of distances between the standard colors on the Maxwell triangle of Judd’s uniform-chromaticity coordinate system, values of D calculated from Judd’s Eq. (2) (reference 10).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Spectral transmission data for the cemented glass combinations comprising set No. 200 of the 1936 U. S. Standards for rosin.

Tables Icon

Table II Glass components of the 1936 and the superseded 1923 standards, (i) Jena GG9 yellow (melt F21725), (ii) Corning G30B signal yellow (melt 8–25–25), (iii) Corning G10M crystal clear, (iv) Corning 554CP amethyst, (v) Corning G34 (melt 7–1–30, T = 5 percent at 556 mμ, 40 percent at 566 mμ), (vi) Corning G34 (melt 11–2–29, T = 5 percent at 566 mμ, 40 percent at 577 mμ), (vii) Corning G24L (melt 5–8–34, T = 5 percent at 580 mμ, 40 percent at 591 mμ); Y, R, B yellow, red, and blue Lovibond numerals, engraved by the manufacturer on the glasses used in set No. 100 of the 1923 standards, a, clear glass with wavy surface, b, wavy film of cellulose acetate.

Tables Icon

Table III Colorimetric specifications for the 1936 and the 1923 standards for rosin, based on the 1931 I.C.I. coordinate system, standard observer, equal-energy basic stimulus, and standard illuminant C; x and y trilinear coordinates, T luminous transmission; additional specifications, Λ dominant wave-length in mμ, and p colorimetric purity.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t = - 0.302 W 1 + 9.55 = - 1.038 W 2 + 22.70 ,
Δ t = - 0.302 Δ W 1 = - 1.038 Δ W 2 ,
x = 0.1643 log 10 t + 0.4458 ,
Δ x = 0.0714 Δ t / t .
Δ x = - 0.00045 x + 0.00042.