Abstract

A working model of a monochromatic sensitometer covering the wave-length region from 3500 to 11,000A has been built. Monochromatic radiation used for exposure is obtained from a double monochromator employing transmission replica gratings as the dispersing elements. The intensity of this radiation is measured with a thermopile. Intensity-scale exposures upon the photographic material result from the use of a specially designed intermittent intensity-scale sector wheel. The same time of exposure is employed at all wave-lengths, and therefore the spectral sensitivity curve derived from the intensity-scale characteristic curves is independent of any reciprocity law failure which the emulsion may exhibit.

© 1940 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. A. Jones and O. Sandvik, “Spectral Distribution of Sensitivity of Photographic Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. & Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 401 (1926).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1936), third edition, p. 264.
  3. This system is similar to that of a double monochromator employing prisms described by W. E. Forsythe and B. T. Barnes in “A Large Crystalline Quartz Double Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 4, 289 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. A. Leighton and W. G. Leighton, “Some Remarks on the Use of Thermopiles for the Absolute Measurement of Radiant Energy,” J. Phys. Chem. 36, 1882 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Webb, “The Relationship between Reciprocity-Law Failure and the Intermittency Effect in Photographic Exposure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 157 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. E. Forsythe (Editor), Measurement of Radiant Energy (McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, 1937), first edition, p. 171.
  7. W. E. Forsythe, reference 6, p. 185.
  8. (a)A. van Kreveld, “Ein Gesetz für die Schwärzungskurven bei Mischfarben,” Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 32, 222 (1934). (b)J. H. Webb, “The Summation of Different Color Radiations by a Photographic Emulsion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 12 (1936). (c)A. van Kreveld, “Standardization of Photographic Sensitometry Based on the Addition Law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 327 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. H. Webb, “The Photographic Reciprocity Law Failure for Radiations of Different Wave-length,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 316 (1933).
    [CrossRef]

1934 (1)

(a)A. van Kreveld, “Ein Gesetz für die Schwärzungskurven bei Mischfarben,” Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 32, 222 (1934). (b)J. H. Webb, “The Summation of Different Color Radiations by a Photographic Emulsion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 12 (1936). (c)A. van Kreveld, “Standardization of Photographic Sensitometry Based on the Addition Law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 327 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1933 (3)

1932 (1)

P. A. Leighton and W. G. Leighton, “Some Remarks on the Use of Thermopiles for the Absolute Measurement of Radiant Energy,” J. Phys. Chem. 36, 1882 (1932).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

L. A. Jones and O. Sandvik, “Spectral Distribution of Sensitivity of Photographic Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. & Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 401 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, B. T.

This system is similar to that of a double monochromator employing prisms described by W. E. Forsythe and B. T. Barnes in “A Large Crystalline Quartz Double Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 4, 289 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Forsythe, W. E.

This system is similar to that of a double monochromator employing prisms described by W. E. Forsythe and B. T. Barnes in “A Large Crystalline Quartz Double Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 4, 289 (1933).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Forsythe, reference 6, p. 185.

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones and O. Sandvik, “Spectral Distribution of Sensitivity of Photographic Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. & Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 401 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Leighton, P. A.

P. A. Leighton and W. G. Leighton, “Some Remarks on the Use of Thermopiles for the Absolute Measurement of Radiant Energy,” J. Phys. Chem. 36, 1882 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Leighton, W. G.

P. A. Leighton and W. G. Leighton, “Some Remarks on the Use of Thermopiles for the Absolute Measurement of Radiant Energy,” J. Phys. Chem. 36, 1882 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Sandvik, O.

L. A. Jones and O. Sandvik, “Spectral Distribution of Sensitivity of Photographic Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. & Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 401 (1926).
[CrossRef]

van Kreveld, A.

(a)A. van Kreveld, “Ein Gesetz für die Schwärzungskurven bei Mischfarben,” Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 32, 222 (1934). (b)J. H. Webb, “The Summation of Different Color Radiations by a Photographic Emulsion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 12 (1936). (c)A. van Kreveld, “Standardization of Photographic Sensitometry Based on the Addition Law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 327 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Webb, J. H.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1936), third edition, p. 264.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. & Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

L. A. Jones and O. Sandvik, “Spectral Distribution of Sensitivity of Photographic Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. & Rev. Sci. Inst. 12, 401 (1926).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. A. Leighton and W. G. Leighton, “Some Remarks on the Use of Thermopiles for the Absolute Measurement of Radiant Energy,” J. Phys. Chem. 36, 1882 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

This system is similar to that of a double monochromator employing prisms described by W. E. Forsythe and B. T. Barnes in “A Large Crystalline Quartz Double Monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 4, 289 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. (1)

(a)A. van Kreveld, “Ein Gesetz für die Schwärzungskurven bei Mischfarben,” Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 32, 222 (1934). (b)J. H. Webb, “The Summation of Different Color Radiations by a Photographic Emulsion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 12 (1936). (c)A. van Kreveld, “Standardization of Photographic Sensitometry Based on the Addition Law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 327 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

W. E. Forsythe (Editor), Measurement of Radiant Energy (McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, 1937), first edition, p. 171.

W. E. Forsythe, reference 6, p. 185.

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1936), third edition, p. 264.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Double monochromator employing two transmission replica gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion in the double monochromator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the sensitometer, plan view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical intensity vs. wave-length curve, measured at the exit slit of the double monochromator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intermittent intensity-scale sector wheel.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral sensitivity curve of an orthochromatic emulsion. Log sensitivity=log 1/It, where It is the number of ergs/cm2 required to produce a density, D=1.00.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Band of wave-lengths transmitted by S3, or incident upon T when the latter is in position. (b) Band of wave-lengths incident upon the exposure field. (c) Distribution of wave-lengths across the width of the exposure field.

Tables (2)

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Table I Optical elements of double monochromator.

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Table II Constants of intermittent intensity-scale sector wheel.

Equations (9)

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± n λ = b ( sin i + sin θ ) ,
λ = b sin θ .
( λ c + d λ ) = b sin ( θ c + d θ ) .
( λ c + d λ ) = b ( sin [ θ c - d θ ] + sin d θ ) ,
b ( sin [ θ c + d θ ] ) = b ( sin [ θ c - d θ ] + sin d θ ) , 2 cos θ c sin d θ = sin d θ or d θ = 2 cos θ c d θ ,
d θ / d λ = 2 cos θ c d θ / d λ or , d θ / d λ = 2 / b ,
d θ / d λ = 1 / ( b cos θ c ) .
f c = ( const. ) × I Av ,
I P , max = T ( I s 3 / M 2 ) ,