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  1. Dorothy Nickerson, “History of the Munsell color system, and its scientific application,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 575 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. G. Priest, K. S. Gibson, and H. J. McNicholas, “An examination of the Munsell color system. I. Spectral and total reflection and the Munsell scale of value,” (1920).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. H. Munsell, Atlas of the Munsell Color System (Wadsworth-Howland & Co., Maiden, Mass., 1915). (Preliminary charts A and B published in 1910.)
  4. H. J. McNicholas, “Equipment for routine spectral transmission and reflection measurements,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 1, 793 (1928); RP30.
  5. G. F. A. Stutz, “Observations of spectrophotometric measurement of paint vehicles and pigments in the ultraviolet,” J. Frank. Inst. 200, 87 (1925).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. S. Gibson, “Spectrophotometry at the Bureau of Standards,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 564 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (Technology Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1936).
  8. A. H. Munsell, “On the relation of the intensity of chromatic stimulus (physical saturation) to chromatic sensation,” Psychol. Bull. 6, 238 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. H. Munsell, “A pigment color system and notation,” Am. J. Psychol. 23, 236 (1912).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. H. Munsell, Color Diary, Bibliofilm Document No. 1307 ($2.50) obtainable from the American Documentation Institute, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, D. C.
  11. J. E. Tyler and A. C. Hardy, “An analysis of the original Munsell color system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 587 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology, Vol. II. Sensation (D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.New York, 1930).
  13. K. S. Gibson, “Approximate spectral energy distribution of skylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88A (1940); Dorothy Nickerson, “The illuminant in color matching and discrimination,” Illuminating Eng., to be published.
  14. Munsell Book of Color (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1939).
  15. S. M. Newhall, “Preliminary report of the Optical Society of America Subcommittee on the spacing of the Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.30, 617 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, “Trichromatic analysis of the Munsell Book of Color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 609 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. H. Munsell, “On a scale of color-values and a new photometer,” Technology Quarterly 18, 60 (1905).
  18. D. B. Judd, “The 1931 I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 367 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. de W. Abney, “On the change of hue of spectrum colors by dilution with white light,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A83, 120 (1910); G. Révész, “Ueber die vom Weiss ausgehende Schwächung der Wirksamkeit farbiger Lichtreize (mit Anschluss einer Mitteilung des Herrn Prof. Dr. G. E. Müller), Zeits. f. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 116 (1906).

1940 (4)

1933 (1)

D. B. Judd, “The 1931 I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 367 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

1928 (1)

H. J. McNicholas, “Equipment for routine spectral transmission and reflection measurements,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 1, 793 (1928); RP30.

1925 (1)

G. F. A. Stutz, “Observations of spectrophotometric measurement of paint vehicles and pigments in the ultraviolet,” J. Frank. Inst. 200, 87 (1925).
[CrossRef]

1912 (1)

A. H. Munsell, “A pigment color system and notation,” Am. J. Psychol. 23, 236 (1912).
[CrossRef]

1910 (1)

W. de W. Abney, “On the change of hue of spectrum colors by dilution with white light,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A83, 120 (1910); G. Révész, “Ueber die vom Weiss ausgehende Schwächung der Wirksamkeit farbiger Lichtreize (mit Anschluss einer Mitteilung des Herrn Prof. Dr. G. E. Müller), Zeits. f. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 116 (1906).

1909 (1)

A. H. Munsell, “On the relation of the intensity of chromatic stimulus (physical saturation) to chromatic sensation,” Psychol. Bull. 6, 238 (1909).
[CrossRef]

1905 (1)

A. H. Munsell, “On a scale of color-values and a new photometer,” Technology Quarterly 18, 60 (1905).

Abney, W. de W.

W. de W. Abney, “On the change of hue of spectrum colors by dilution with white light,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A83, 120 (1910); G. Révész, “Ueber die vom Weiss ausgehende Schwächung der Wirksamkeit farbiger Lichtreize (mit Anschluss einer Mitteilung des Herrn Prof. Dr. G. E. Müller), Zeits. f. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 116 (1906).

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, “Approximate spectral energy distribution of skylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88A (1940); Dorothy Nickerson, “The illuminant in color matching and discrimination,” Illuminating Eng., to be published.

K. S. Gibson, “Spectrophotometry at the Bureau of Standards,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 564 (1931).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Priest, K. S. Gibson, and H. J. McNicholas, “An examination of the Munsell color system. I. Spectral and total reflection and the Munsell scale of value,” (1920).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, J. J.

Hardy, A. C.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “The 1931 I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 367 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Killian, J. T.

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, “Equipment for routine spectral transmission and reflection measurements,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 1, 793 (1928); RP30.

I. G. Priest, K. S. Gibson, and H. J. McNicholas, “An examination of the Munsell color system. I. Spectral and total reflection and the Munsell scale of value,” (1920).
[CrossRef]

Munsell, A. H.

A. H. Munsell, “A pigment color system and notation,” Am. J. Psychol. 23, 236 (1912).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Munsell, “On the relation of the intensity of chromatic stimulus (physical saturation) to chromatic sensation,” Psychol. Bull. 6, 238 (1909).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Munsell, “On a scale of color-values and a new photometer,” Technology Quarterly 18, 60 (1905).

A. H. Munsell, Color Diary, Bibliofilm Document No. 1307 ($2.50) obtainable from the American Documentation Institute, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, D. C.

A. H. Munsell, Atlas of the Munsell Color System (Wadsworth-Howland & Co., Maiden, Mass., 1915). (Preliminary charts A and B published in 1910.)

Newhall, S. M.

S. M. Newhall, “Preliminary report of the Optical Society of America Subcommittee on the spacing of the Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.30, 617 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Nickerson, Dorothy

Priest, I. G.

I. G. Priest, K. S. Gibson, and H. J. McNicholas, “An examination of the Munsell color system. I. Spectral and total reflection and the Munsell scale of value,” (1920).
[CrossRef]

Stutz, G. F. A.

G. F. A. Stutz, “Observations of spectrophotometric measurement of paint vehicles and pigments in the ultraviolet,” J. Frank. Inst. 200, 87 (1925).
[CrossRef]

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology, Vol. II. Sensation (D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.New York, 1930).

Tyler, J. E.

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

A. H. Munsell, “A pigment color system and notation,” Am. J. Psychol. 23, 236 (1912).
[CrossRef]

J. Frank. Inst. (1)

G. F. A. Stutz, “Observations of spectrophotometric measurement of paint vehicles and pigments in the ultraviolet,” J. Frank. Inst. 200, 87 (1925).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

K. S. Gibson, “Approximate spectral energy distribution of skylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88A (1940); Dorothy Nickerson, “The illuminant in color matching and discrimination,” Illuminating Eng., to be published.

D. B. Judd, “The 1931 I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system for colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 367 (1933).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Gibson, “Spectrophotometry at the Bureau of Standards,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 564 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Dorothy Nickerson, “History of the Munsell color system, and its scientific application,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 575 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler and A. C. Hardy, “An analysis of the original Munsell color system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 587 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Glenn and J. T. Killian, “Trichromatic analysis of the Munsell Book of Color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 609 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. (1)

H. J. McNicholas, “Equipment for routine spectral transmission and reflection measurements,” J. Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 1, 793 (1928); RP30.

Proc. Roy. Soc. London (1)

W. de W. Abney, “On the change of hue of spectrum colors by dilution with white light,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A83, 120 (1910); G. Révész, “Ueber die vom Weiss ausgehende Schwächung der Wirksamkeit farbiger Lichtreize (mit Anschluss einer Mitteilung des Herrn Prof. Dr. G. E. Müller), Zeits. f. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 116 (1906).

Psychol. Bull. (1)

A. H. Munsell, “On the relation of the intensity of chromatic stimulus (physical saturation) to chromatic sensation,” Psychol. Bull. 6, 238 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Technology Quarterly (1)

A. H. Munsell, “On a scale of color-values and a new photometer,” Technology Quarterly 18, 60 (1905).

Other (7)

A. H. Munsell, Color Diary, Bibliofilm Document No. 1307 ($2.50) obtainable from the American Documentation Institute, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, D. C.

L. T. Troland, The Principles of Psychophysiology, Vol. II. Sensation (D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.New York, 1930).

A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry (Technology Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1936).

I. G. Priest, K. S. Gibson, and H. J. McNicholas, “An examination of the Munsell color system. I. Spectral and total reflection and the Munsell scale of value,” (1920).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Munsell, Atlas of the Munsell Color System (Wadsworth-Howland & Co., Maiden, Mass., 1915). (Preliminary charts A and B published in 1910.)

Munsell Book of Color (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1939).

S. M. Newhall, “Preliminary report of the Optical Society of America Subcommittee on the spacing of the Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.30, 617 (1940).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Work sheet of spectrophotometric data and adopted values for Munsell Atlas sample RP 3/6, as used in National Bureau of Standards Test No. 46045 (1926 data). This is typical of the work sheets used for each of the 70 samples of that test. Key: open circles, diffuse-normal visual data; larger closed circles, 45°-normal visual data; smaller closed circles, 45°-normal photographic data; continuous line, adopted diffuse-normal data; dashed line, adopted 45°-normal data: values below 0.10 are also magnified by 10.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

One of ten figures given in the report on National Bureau of Standards Test 46045 (1926 data) showing adopted diffuse-normal (continuous lines) and 45°-normal (dashed lines) data for the eight samples of each of the ten hue designations of the Munsell Atlas colors. This illustration is for the eight samples of the blue-green (BG) series.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

These data show the relation between luminous apparent reflectance (relative to magnesium oxide) and the square of Munsell value, as obtained in the 1919 and 1926 measurements on the Munsell Atlas samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Trichromatic coefficients (trilinear coordinates) of Munsell Atlas samples as obtained from measurements made in 1919 and 1926. Also shown in this figure are the complements of the 5/5 R, Y, G, B, and P colors derived from Eqs. [5], both with I.C.I. Illuminant C as the neutral point and with the disk-mixture (DM) color as the neutral point. Note the regularity of the ten-sided figure (continuous lines) resulting from use of the DM point as compared with that (dashed lines) based on C. Each pair of points representing the experimental data is connected to a point (×) on the line joining the DM and the respective 5/5 points, these ×-points being computed by Eqs. [5] and [6] for the given values of V/C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In this figure is shown the degree to which the dominant wave-length of each Munsell Atlas sample (1926 data) departs from the average dominant wave-length for all samples of that hue designation, as derived from Tables III and IV. In each case, the arrow shows the direction of the departure and its length indicates the proportional part of the dominant wave-length interval to the adjacent hue. It illustrates the relative constancy of the dominant wave-lengths of, for example, the yellow samples and the shift of dominant wave-length for the blue-green and red-purple samples from value 8/ to value 2/. These dominant wave-lengths are all derived with I.C.I. Illuminant C as the reference point; the results would in some cases be importantly different if DM (Fig. 4) were used as the reference point.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The second of the above diagrams (labeled 6700°K) is identical with the respective part of Fig. 4. The other diagrams above show that change of illuminant from 6700°K (I.C.I. Illuminant C) to 8000°K, 25000°K or 4800°K (I.C.I. Illuminant B) effects no appreciable improvement in the shape of the figure defined by complementaries derived by Eq. [5] using the illuminant as the reference point. In all four cases, the use of the equal-area disk-mixture point (DM) for computing the complementaries yields a much more regular figure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the 1919 and 1926 experimental data with values computed from the psychophysical relations. For the five principal colors the relations are as expressed in Eqs. [7] and [8] and as given in the abscissa legend. For the five complementary colors, analogous relations for xV/−C, yV/−C and Pe(V/−C) were used, based also on x5/5, y5/5 and Pe(5/5); this explains why the dashed curves do not pass through the point, 1, 1 as do the continuous curves. While there is rough agreement between data and curves, large individual deviations may be noted.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Illustration of the psychophysical system developed in this paper as expressed in Eq. [7], using the 5/5 R, Y, G, B, and P 1919 data as basic starting points and the equal-area disk-mixture data (DM) as the neutral point. The open circles are plotted at chromas 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, etc. Deviations of the 1926 Atlas data from this system are also shown. Corresponding charts for the 3/, 5/, and 7/ value levels are omitted.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Notations of the 70 Munsell Atlas samples measured at the National Bureau of Standards in 1926, NBS test 46,045.

Tables Icon

Table II Trichromatic analysis of Munsell Atlas colors, 1919 data. Values computed, from spectrophotometric data in Bureau of Standards Technologic Paper No. 167 (B.S. test report 23,998) on the basis of the I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system and for I. C.I. Illuminant C.

Tables Icon

Table III Trichromatic analysis of Munsell Atlas colors, 1926 data, diffuse illumination. Values computed from spectrophotometric data given in Bureau of Standards Test Report 46,045 on the basis of the I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system and for I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Tables Icon

Table IV Trichromatic analysis of Munsell Atlas colors, 1926 data, 45° illumination. Values computed from spectrophotometric data given in Bureau of Standards Test Report 46,045 on the basis of the I.C.I. standard observer and coordinate system and for I.C.I. Illuminant C.

Tables Icon

Table V Average values of Y for samples in 1919 and 1926 tests. These values are computed from the data of Tables II, III and IV, except for the neutral samples, for which the values are taken from Bureau of Standards Technologic Paper No. 167.

Tables Icon

Table VI Specifications of the five principal Munsell colors, for the Munsell N 5/ given by equal-area disk mixture of these five colors, and for the complements of these five colors at 5/5. The tristimulus specifications of each color have been multiplied by a factor to make Y=0.2500.

Tables Icon

Table VII Excitation purities for 70 Munsell notations: derived from the disk-mixture rule (psychophysical); computed from 1926 spectrophotometric data both for diffuse and 45° illumination (1926 data); and from the Glenn-Killian data on the papers of the Munsell Book of Color, with conformity to the Newhall psychological check indicated by direction of difference (psychological).

Equations (16)

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a 1 = C 2 V 2 / ( C 1 V 1 + C 2 V 2 ) ,
a 2 = C 1 V 1 / ( C 1 V 1 + C 2 V 2 ) .
a 1 X 1 + a 2 X 2 = X n a 1 Y 1 + a 2 Y 2 = Y n a 1 Z 1 + a 2 Z 2 = Z n .
Y V / C = V 2 / 100 ,
Y 5 / 0 = Y 5 / 5 = 25 / 100.
X n / X 5 / 0 = Y n / Y 5 / 0 = Z n / Z 5 / 0 .
a 1 = C V / ( C V + 25 ) ;             a 2 = 25 / ( C V + 25 ) .
X V / - C = V 5 [ ( V + C ) 5 X 5 / 0 - C 5 X 5 / 5 ] Y V / - C = V 5 [ ( V + C ) 5 Y 5 / 0 - C 5 Y 5 / 5 ] Z V / - C = V 5 [ ( V + C ) 5 Z 5 / 0 - C 5 Z 5 / 5 ] .
X V / C = V 5 [ ( V - C ) 5 X 5 / 0 + C 5 X 5 / 5 ] Y V / C = V 5 [ ( V - C ) 5 Y 5 / 0 + C 5 Y 5 / 5 ] Z V / C = V 5 [ ( V - C ) 5 Z 5 / 0 + C 5 Z 5 / 5 ] .
x V / C = ( V / C - 1 ) x 5 / 0 + ( y 5 / 0 / y 5 / 5 ) x 5 / 5 ( V / C - 1 ) + y 5 / 0 / y 5 / 5 , y V / C = ( V / C ) y 5 / 0 ( V / C - 1 ) + y 5 / 0 / y 5 / 5 .
P e ( V / C ) P e ( 5 / 5 ) = y V / C - y 5 / 0 y 5 / 5 - y 5 / 0 = y 5 / 0 ( y 5 / 5 ) ( V / C - 1 ) + y 5 / 0 .
P c = y λ P e y 5 / 0 + P e ( y λ - y 5 / 0 ) P c ( 5 / 5 ) = ( y λ y 5 / 5 ) P e ( 5 / 5 ) ,
P c ( V / C ) = C P c ( 5 / 5 ) / V
C = V P c ( V / C ) / P c ( 5 / 5 ) .
[ ( x V / C - x 5 / 0 ) 2 + ( y V / C - y 5 / 0 ) 2 ( x 5 / 5 - x 5 / 0 ) 2 + ( y 5 / 5 - y 5 / 0 ) 2 ] 1 2 ,
P e ( V / C ) = P e ( 5 / 5 ) y 5 / 0 y 5 / 5 ( V / C - 1 ) + y 5 / 0 . P c ( V / C ) = ( C / V ) P c ( 5 / 5 ) .