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  1. H. R. James and E. A. Birge, “A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters,” Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).
  2. E. O. Hulburt, “The Transparency of Ocean Water and the Visibility Curve of the Eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 553–556 (1926).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. O. Hulburt, “The Penetration of Ultraviolet Light into Pure Water and Sea Water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 17, 15–22 (1928).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. R. Sawyer, “The Spectral Absorption of Light by Pure Water and Bay of Fundy Water,” Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries, n. s.  7, No. 8, 75–89 (1931).
  5. R. H. Oster and G. L. Clarke, “The Penetration of the Red, Green and Violet Components of Daylight into Atlantic Waters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 84–91 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. L. Clarke, “Seasonal Changes in the Intensity of Submarine Illumination off Woods Hole,” Ecology 19, 89–106 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Reference 1, Fig. 19.
  8. A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole, and C. L. Utterback, 1938. “Measurements of Submarine Daylight,” J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation Technical Data Pamphlet.
  10. W. M. Powell and G. L. Clarke, “The Reflection and Absorption of Daylight at the Surface of the Ocean,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 111–120 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. L. Clarke, “Light Penetration in the Western North Atlantic and its Application to Biological Problems,” Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Con. Perm. Intern. Exp. Mer. 101, Part 2, 3–14 (1936).
  12. L. H. Dawson and E. O. Hulburt, “The Absorption of Ultraviolet and Visible Light by Water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 175–177 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. L. Clarke, “Observations on the Penetration of Daylight into Mid-Atlantic and Coastal Waters,” Biol. Bull. 65, 2, 317–337 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson, and G. W. Barnes, “Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements,” Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No.  475, 191–205 (1937).
  15. G. L. Clarke, “Light Penetration in the Caribbean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico,” J. of Marine Research 1, 85–94 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, “The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).
  17. Private communication.
  18. L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. “The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination,” J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. “The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea,” Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Kalle, “Zum Problem des Meereswasserfarbe. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen meteorologie,” Heft.  I, 1–13 (1938).

1938 (6)

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, “A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters,” Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).

G. L. Clarke, “Seasonal Changes in the Intensity of Submarine Illumination off Woods Hole,” Ecology 19, 89–106 (1938).
[CrossRef]

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole, and C. L. Utterback, 1938. “Measurements of Submarine Daylight,” J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Clarke, “Light Penetration in the Caribbean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico,” J. of Marine Research 1, 85–94 (1938).
[CrossRef]

L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. “The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination,” J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.
[CrossRef]

K. Kalle, “Zum Problem des Meereswasserfarbe. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen meteorologie,” Heft.  I, 1–13 (1938).

1937 (1)

H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson, and G. W. Barnes, “Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements,” Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No.  475, 191–205 (1937).

1936 (2)

G. L. Clarke, “Light Penetration in the Western North Atlantic and its Application to Biological Problems,” Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Con. Perm. Intern. Exp. Mer. 101, Part 2, 3–14 (1936).

W. M. Powell and G. L. Clarke, “The Reflection and Absorption of Daylight at the Surface of the Ocean,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 111–120 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1935 (2)

R. H. Oster and G. L. Clarke, “The Penetration of the Red, Green and Violet Components of Daylight into Atlantic Waters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 84–91 (1935).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. “The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea,” Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

1933 (2)

W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, “The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).

G. L. Clarke, “Observations on the Penetration of Daylight into Mid-Atlantic and Coastal Waters,” Biol. Bull. 65, 2, 317–337 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

W. R. Sawyer, “The Spectral Absorption of Light by Pure Water and Bay of Fundy Water,” Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries, n. s.  7, No. 8, 75–89 (1931).

1928 (1)

E. O. Hulburt, “The Penetration of Ultraviolet Light into Pure Water and Sea Water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 17, 15–22 (1928).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

E. O. Hulburt, “The Transparency of Ocean Water and the Visibility Curve of the Eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 553–556 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Angstrom, A.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole, and C. L. Utterback, 1938. “Measurements of Submarine Daylight,” J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, W. R. G.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole, and C. L. Utterback, 1938. “Measurements of Submarine Daylight,” J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
[CrossRef]

W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, “The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).

Barnes, G. W.

H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson, and G. W. Barnes, “Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements,” Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No.  475, 191–205 (1937).

Birge, E. A.

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, “A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters,” Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Clarke, G. L.

G. L. Clarke, “Light Penetration in the Caribbean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico,” J. of Marine Research 1, 85–94 (1938).
[CrossRef]

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole, and C. L. Utterback, 1938. “Measurements of Submarine Daylight,” J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Clarke, “Seasonal Changes in the Intensity of Submarine Illumination off Woods Hole,” Ecology 19, 89–106 (1938).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Powell and G. L. Clarke, “The Reflection and Absorption of Daylight at the Surface of the Ocean,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 111–120 (1936).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Clarke, “Light Penetration in the Western North Atlantic and its Application to Biological Problems,” Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Con. Perm. Intern. Exp. Mer. 101, Part 2, 3–14 (1936).

G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. “The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea,” Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Oster and G. L. Clarke, “The Penetration of the Red, Green and Violet Components of Daylight into Atlantic Waters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 84–91 (1935).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Clarke, “Observations on the Penetration of Daylight into Mid-Atlantic and Coastal Waters,” Biol. Bull. 65, 2, 317–337 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, L. H. N.

L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. “The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination,” J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.
[CrossRef]

Darby, H. H.

H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson, and G. W. Barnes, “Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements,” Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No.  475, 191–205 (1937).

Dawson, L. H.

Gellis, S. S.

G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. “The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea,” Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Hulburt, E. O.

L. H. Dawson and E. O. Hulburt, “The Absorption of Ultraviolet and Visible Light by Water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 175–177 (1934).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Hulburt, “The Penetration of Ultraviolet Light into Pure Water and Sea Water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 17, 15–22 (1928).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Hulburt, “The Transparency of Ocean Water and the Visibility Curve of the Eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 553–556 (1926).
[CrossRef]

James, H. R.

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, “A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters,” Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Johnson, E. R. F.

H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson, and G. W. Barnes, “Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements,” Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No.  475, 191–205 (1937).

Kalle, K.

K. Kalle, “Zum Problem des Meereswasserfarbe. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen meteorologie,” Heft.  I, 1–13 (1938).

Milne, A.

L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. “The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination,” J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.
[CrossRef]

Oster, R. H.

Pettersson, H.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole, and C. L. Utterback, 1938. “Measurements of Submarine Daylight,” J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Poole, H. H.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole, and C. L. Utterback, 1938. “Measurements of Submarine Daylight,” J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
[CrossRef]

W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, “The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).

Powell, W. M.

Sawyer, W. R.

W. R. Sawyer, “The Spectral Absorption of Light by Pure Water and Bay of Fundy Water,” Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries, n. s.  7, No. 8, 75–89 (1931).

Utterback, C. L.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole, and C. L. Utterback, 1938. “Measurements of Submarine Daylight,” J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Bull. (2)

G. L. Clarke, “Observations on the Penetration of Daylight into Mid-Atlantic and Coastal Waters,” Biol. Bull. 65, 2, 317–337 (1933).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. “The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea,” Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries (1)

W. R. Sawyer, “The Spectral Absorption of Light by Pure Water and Bay of Fundy Water,” Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries, n. s.  7, No. 8, 75–89 (1931).

Ecology (1)

G. L. Clarke, “Seasonal Changes in the Intensity of Submarine Illumination off Woods Hole,” Ecology 19, 89–106 (1938).
[CrossRef]

J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer (1)

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole, and C. L. Utterback, 1938. “Measurements of Submarine Daylight,” J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Biol. Ass. (1)

L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. “The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination,” J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.
[CrossRef]

J. of Marine Research (1)

G. L. Clarke, “Light Penetration in the Caribbean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico,” J. of Marine Research 1, 85–94 (1938).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. (2)

E. O. Hulburt, “The Transparency of Ocean Water and the Visibility Curve of the Eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 553–556 (1926).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Hulburt, “The Penetration of Ultraviolet Light into Pure Water and Sea Water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 17, 15–22 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. (1)

W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, “The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).

Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Con. Perm. Intern. Exp. Mer. (1)

G. L. Clarke, “Light Penetration in the Western North Atlantic and its Application to Biological Problems,” Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Con. Perm. Intern. Exp. Mer. 101, Part 2, 3–14 (1936).

Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements (1)

H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson, and G. W. Barnes, “Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements,” Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No.  475, 191–205 (1937).

Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. (1)

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, “A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters,” Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Zum Problem des Meereswasserfarbe. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen meteorologie (1)

K. Kalle, “Zum Problem des Meereswasserfarbe. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen meteorologie,” Heft.  I, 1–13 (1938).

Other (3)

Private communication.

Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation Technical Data Pamphlet.

Reference 1, Fig. 19.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sargasso water. Station C. Percentage absorption of light per meter. Curve 1—sample 5, not filtered when collected, measured August 10, 1938, after shaking. Curve 2—sample 5, not filtered when collected, measured August 11, 1938, after Berkefeld filtering. Curve 3—double-distilled water, measured in ceresin-lined tube. (Curve displaced downward by 10 units to avoid interference.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Continental Slope water. Station B. Percentage absorption of light per meter. Curve 1—sample 7, not filtered when collected, measured August 12, 1938, after shaking. Curve 2—sample 7, not filtered when collected, measured August 12, 1938, after Berkefeld filtering. Curve 3—double-distilled water measured in ceresin-lined tube. Curve 4—sample 8, paper filtered when collected, measured August 10, 1938, after shaking.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Continental Shelf water. Station A. Percentage absorption of light per meter. Curve 1—sample 9, not filtered when collected, measured August 13, 1938, after shaking. Curve 2—sample 9, not filtered when collected, measured August 13, 1938, after Berkefeld filtering. Curve 3—double-distilled water measured in ceresin-lined tube. Curve 4—sample 10, paper filtered when collected, measured August 11, 1938, after shaking.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vineyard Sound Whistle Buoy. Station 3. Percentage absorption of light per meter. Curve 1—sample 11, not filtered when collected, measured August 11, 1938, after shaking. Curve 2—sample 11, not filtered when collected, measured August 11, 1938, after Berkefeld filtering. Curve 3—double-distilled water measured in ceresin-lined tube. Curve 4—sample 12, Berkefeld filtered when collected, measured August 9, 1938, after shaking.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vineyard Sound Whistle Buoy. Station 3. Percentage absorption of light per meter. Curve 1—sample 4, not filtered when collected, measured July 6, 1938, after shaking. Curve 2—sample 4, not filtered when collected, measured July 6, 1938, after settling 48 hours. Curve 3—double-distilled water measured in ceresin-lined tube.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vineyard Sound water. Station 4. Percentage absorption of light per meter. Curve 1—sample 2, not filtered when collected, measured July 7, 1938, after shaking. Curve 2—sample 2, not filtered when collected, measured July 7, 1938, after settling 48 hours. Curve 3—double-distilled water measured in ceresin-lined tube.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Buzzards Bay water. Station 5. Percentage absorption of light per meter. Curve 1—sample 1, not filtered when collected, measured July 5, 1938, after shaking. Curve 2—sample 1, not filtered when collected, measured July 7, 1938, after settling 48 hours. Curve 3—double-distilled water measured in ceresin-lined tube.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Curve 1—percentage absorption per meter of one portion of double-distilled water after Berkefeld filtering. Curve 2—percentage absorption per meter of artificial sea water (see text) made from a second portion of the double-distilled water and passed through the Berkefeld filter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measurements of light absorption carried out at sea. Curves show relation between depth and illumination expressed as a percentage of the light just over the surface (logarithmic scale). Maximum sensitivity of photometer 5500A (photronic cell with VG-2 filter). Series number indicated at end of each curve (see Table I for additional data).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of percentage absorption of light per meter for unfiltered samples of sea water from all stations measured after shaking.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table I Locations from which water samples were obtained.

Tables Icon

Table II Comparison of absorption per meter of samples 5 and 6 at five wave-lengths. Both samples were taken at Station C. Neither was filtered at the time of collection, but sample 6 had evidently become contaminated.

Tables Icon

Table III Summary of the measurements of the penetration of the “green” component of daylight into the sea and comparison with laboratory measurements of absorption of unfiltered samples taken from the same stations.

Tables Icon

Table IV Comparison of “pure” sea water with distilled water. Percent absorption per meter.

Tables Icon

Table V Comparison of field measurements of light absorption in the blue and violet regions with laboratory measurements of sea water and of distilled water.

Tables Icon

Table VI Percentage transmitted by filter-passing material = C (“color”), and by filter-retained material = S (“suspensoids”), in reducing the transmission of distilled water = W to that observed for the shaken sample = N (see text).