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  1. H. R. James and E. A. Birge, "A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters," Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).
  2. E. O. Hulburt, "The Transparency of Ocean Water and the Visibility Curve of the Eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 553–556 (1926).
  3. E. O. Hulburt, "The Penetration of Ultraviolet Light into Pure Water and Sea Water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 17, 15–22 (1928).
  4. W. R. Sawyer, "The Spectral Absorption of Light by Pure Water and Bay of Fundy Water," Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries, n. s. 7, No. 8, 75–89 (1931).
  5. R. H. Oster and G. L. Clarke, "The Penetration of the Red, Green and Violet Components of Daylight into Atlantic Waters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 84–91 (1935).
  6. G. L. Clarke, "Seasonal Changes in the Intensity of Submarine Illumination off Woods Hole," Ecology 19, 89–106 (1938).
  7. Reference 1, Fig. 19.
  8. A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole and C. L. Utterback, 1938. "Measurements of Submarine Daylight," J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l'Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).
  9. Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation Technical Data Pamphlet.
  10. W. M. Powell and G. L. Clarke, "The Reflection and Absorption of Daylight at the Surface of the Ocean," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 111–120 (1936).For high light intensities a diaphragm was placed over this disk to reduce the illumination. Both photometers were carefully calibrated against a photoelectric cell which was known to be linear in its response (Powell and Clarke, reference 10).
  11. G. L. Clarke, "Light Penetration in the Western North Atlantic and its Application to Biological Problems," Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Con. Perm. Intern. Exp. Mer. 101, Part 2, 3–14 (1936).
  12. L. H. Dawson and E. O. Hulburt, "The Absorption of Ultraviolet and Visible Light by Water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 175–177 (1934).
  13. G. L. Clarke, "Observations on the Penetration of Daylight into Mid-Atlantic and Coastal Waters," Biol. Bull. 65, 2, 317–337 (1933).
  14. H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson and G. W. Barnes, "Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements," Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No. 475, 191–205 (1937).
  15. G. L. Clarke, "Light Penetration in the Caribbean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico," J. of Marine Research 1, 85–94 (1938).
  16. W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, "The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).
  17. Private communication.
  18. L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. "The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination," J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.
  19. G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. "The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea," Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).
  20. K. Kalle, "Zum Problem des Meereswasserfarbe. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen meteorologie," Heft. I, 1–13 (1938).

1938

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, "A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters," Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).

G. L. Clarke, "Seasonal Changes in the Intensity of Submarine Illumination off Woods Hole," Ecology 19, 89–106 (1938).

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole and C. L. Utterback, 1938. "Measurements of Submarine Daylight," J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l'Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).

G. L. Clarke, "Light Penetration in the Caribbean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico," J. of Marine Research 1, 85–94 (1938).

L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. "The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination," J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.

K. Kalle, "Zum Problem des Meereswasserfarbe. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen meteorologie," Heft. I, 1–13 (1938).

1936

1935

R. H. Oster and G. L. Clarke, "The Penetration of the Red, Green and Violet Components of Daylight into Atlantic Waters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 84–91 (1935).

G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. "The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea," Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).

1934

1933

W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, "The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).

G. L. Clarke, "Observations on the Penetration of Daylight into Mid-Atlantic and Coastal Waters," Biol. Bull. 65, 2, 317–337 (1933).

1931

W. R. Sawyer, "The Spectral Absorption of Light by Pure Water and Bay of Fundy Water," Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries, n. s. 7, No. 8, 75–89 (1931).

1928

E. O. Hulburt, "The Penetration of Ultraviolet Light into Pure Water and Sea Water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 17, 15–22 (1928).

1926

E. O. Hulburt, "The Transparency of Ocean Water and the Visibility Curve of the Eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 553–556 (1926).

Angstrom, A.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole and C. L. Utterback, 1938. "Measurements of Submarine Daylight," J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l'Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).

Atkins, W. R. G.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole and C. L. Utterback, 1938. "Measurements of Submarine Daylight," J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l'Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).

W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, "The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).

Barnes, G. W.

H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson and G. W. Barnes, "Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements," Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No. 475, 191–205 (1937).

Birge, E. A.

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, "A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters," Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Clarke, G. L.

G. L. Clarke, "Light Penetration in the Caribbean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico," J. of Marine Research 1, 85–94 (1938).

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole and C. L. Utterback, 1938. "Measurements of Submarine Daylight," J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l'Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).

G. L. Clarke, "Seasonal Changes in the Intensity of Submarine Illumination off Woods Hole," Ecology 19, 89–106 (1938).

G. L. Clarke, "Light Penetration in the Western North Atlantic and its Application to Biological Problems," Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Con. Perm. Intern. Exp. Mer. 101, Part 2, 3–14 (1936).

W. M. Powell and G. L. Clarke, "The Reflection and Absorption of Daylight at the Surface of the Ocean," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 111–120 (1936).For high light intensities a diaphragm was placed over this disk to reduce the illumination. Both photometers were carefully calibrated against a photoelectric cell which was known to be linear in its response (Powell and Clarke, reference 10).

G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. "The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea," Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).

R. H. Oster and G. L. Clarke, "The Penetration of the Red, Green and Violet Components of Daylight into Atlantic Waters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 84–91 (1935).

G. L. Clarke, "Observations on the Penetration of Daylight into Mid-Atlantic and Coastal Waters," Biol. Bull. 65, 2, 317–337 (1933).

Cooper, L. H. N.

L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. "The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination," J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.

Darby, H. H.

H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson and G. W. Barnes, "Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements," Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No. 475, 191–205 (1937).

Dawson, L. H.

Gellis, S. S.

G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. "The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea," Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).

Hulburt, E. O.

L. H. Dawson and E. O. Hulburt, "The Absorption of Ultraviolet and Visible Light by Water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 175–177 (1934).

E. O. Hulburt, "The Penetration of Ultraviolet Light into Pure Water and Sea Water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 17, 15–22 (1928).

E. O. Hulburt, "The Transparency of Ocean Water and the Visibility Curve of the Eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 553–556 (1926).

James, H. R.

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, "A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters," Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Johnson, E. R. F.

H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson and G. W. Barnes, "Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements," Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No. 475, 191–205 (1937).

Kalle, K.

K. Kalle, "Zum Problem des Meereswasserfarbe. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen meteorologie," Heft. I, 1–13 (1938).

Milne, A.

L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. "The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination," J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.

Oster, R. H.

Pettersson, H.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole and C. L. Utterback, 1938. "Measurements of Submarine Daylight," J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l'Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).

Poole, H. H.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole and C. L. Utterback, 1938. "Measurements of Submarine Daylight," J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l'Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).

W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, "The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).

Powell, W. M.

Sawyer, W. R.

W. R. Sawyer, "The Spectral Absorption of Light by Pure Water and Bay of Fundy Water," Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries, n. s. 7, No. 8, 75–89 (1931).

Utterback, C. L.

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole and C. L. Utterback, 1938. "Measurements of Submarine Daylight," J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l'Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).

Biol. Bull.

G. L. Clarke, "Observations on the Penetration of Daylight into Mid-Atlantic and Coastal Waters," Biol. Bull. 65, 2, 317–337 (1933).

G. L. Clarke and S. S. Gellis, 1935. "The Nutrition of Copepods in Relation to the Food-Cycle of the Sea," Biol. Bull. 68, 231–246 (1935).

Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries, n. s.

W. R. Sawyer, "The Spectral Absorption of Light by Pure Water and Bay of Fundy Water," Conts. Can. Biol. and Fisheries, n. s. 7, No. 8, 75–89 (1931).

Ecology

G. L. Clarke, "Seasonal Changes in the Intensity of Submarine Illumination off Woods Hole," Ecology 19, 89–106 (1938).

Heft.

K. Kalle, "Zum Problem des Meereswasserfarbe. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen meteorologie," Heft. I, 1–13 (1938).

J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l’Exp. de la Mer

A. Angstrom, W. R. G. Atkins, G. L. Clarke, H. Pettersson, H. H. Poole and C. L. Utterback, 1938. "Measurements of Submarine Daylight," J. du Conseil Perm. Intern. pour l'Exp. de la Mer 13, 37–57 (1938).

J. Mar. Biol. Ass.

L. H. N. Cooper and A. Milne, 1938. "The Ecology of the Tamar Estuary. II. Under-Water Illumination," J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 22, 509–528.

J. of Marine Research

G. L. Clarke, "Light Penetration in the Caribbean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico," J. of Marine Research 1, 85–94 (1938).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst.

E. O. Hulburt, "The Transparency of Ocean Water and the Visibility Curve of the Eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 13, 553–556 (1926).

E. O. Hulburt, "The Penetration of Ultraviolet Light into Pure Water and Sea Water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Inst. 17, 15–22 (1928).

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London.

W. R. G. Atkins and H. H. Poole, "The Photo-electric Measurement of the Penetration of Light of Various Wave-Lengths into the Sea and the Physiological Bearing of the Results," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B222, 129–164 (1933).

Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Con. Perm. Intern. Exp. Mer.

G. L. Clarke, "Light Penetration in the Western North Atlantic and its Application to Biological Problems," Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Con. Perm. Intern. Exp. Mer. 101, Part 2, 3–14 (1936).

Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci.

H. R. James and E. A. Birge, "A Laboratory Study of the Absorption of Light by Lake Waters," Trans. Wis. Acad. of Sci. 31, 1–154 (1938).

Other

Private communication.

H. H. Darby, E. R. F. Johnson and G. W. Barnes, "Studies on the Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation by the Sea. Spectrographic and Photoelectric Measurements," Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publication, No. 475, 191–205 (1937).

Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation Technical Data Pamphlet.

Reference 1, Fig. 19.

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