Abstract

A pyrometer is described which measures with a thermopile and galvanometer the emission of energy in an isolated narrow band of wave-lengths centered at 8.8μ. These radiations are isolated by successive reflections from quartz crystals. The residual-ray apparatus used to isolate the 8.8μ band is arranged in a manner to make it compact, to avoid aberrations and, owing to the polarization of the near infra-red radiations, it is more effective than earlier models of residual-ray apparatus in eliminating the undesired short wave-length infra-red energy. Because the band lies in the infra-red the pyrometer can be used to determine low as well as high temperatures. The instrument is particularly suited for work in the temperatures range 0°C±100°C. Ordinary temperatures are easily determined to 0.1°C. The band of radiations used by the instrument falls in a region of the infra-red spectrum where the atmosphere is very transparent. Accordingly, in most applications (meteorological and astronomical applications excepted) there is practically no absorption in the optical path. The procedure of making temperature measurements is described. A new temperature scale is employed. Tables are supplied for reducing the observations to the ordinary centigrade scale. The instrument measures surface temperatures (when the emissivity of the surface is known) without disturbing radiation transfer or convective heating and cooling at the surface. Many applications of the instrument are concerned with surfaces which radiate as blackbodies.

© 1939 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. D. Hardy and G. F. Soderstrom, Rev. Sci. Inst. 8, 419 (1937). These authors describe an improved apparatus for measuring the total radiation from surface at room temperatures. The instrument measures the total radiation emitted by the surface: no correction for the absorption in the optical path is necessary as the instrument is always used near the tested surface.
    [Crossref]
  2. E. F. Nichols, Ann. d. Physik 60, 401 (1897).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Rubens and E. F. Nichols, Ann. d. Physik 60, 418 (1897).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Liebisch and H. Rubens, Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Ber. 16, 198, 876 (1919); M. Czerny and H. Röder, “Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Ultrarottechnik” and also Frank Matossi, “Ergebnisse der Ultrarotforschung” Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften Vol.  17, 1938.
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Rubens and F. Kurlbaum, Ann. d. Physik 4, 649 (1901).
    [Crossref]
  6. John Strong, Phys. Rev. 37, 1565 (1931); Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1938), p. 383.
    [Crossref]
  7. John Strong, Phys. Rev. 38, 1818 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  8. John Strong and S. C. Woo, Phys. Rev. 42, 267 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  9. This apparatus was described at the meetings of the American Physical Society in San Diego, 1938, and Washington, 1939. See Phys. Rev. 54, 242 (1938); Phys. Rev. 55, 1114 (1939).
  10. M. Czerny, Zeits. f. Physik 16, 321 (1923).
    [Crossref]
  11. The transmission limit of β-MgO in the infra-red falls between the transmission limits of quartz and fluorite. See J. Strong and R. T. Brice, Phys. Rev. 25, 209 (1935).This material is accordingly suited for use as a so-called Rubens shutter. This shutter makes possible the use of a grating in the spectral region 8–16μ without a fore prism monochromator. For a description of the Rubens shutter see reference 10. The same piece of β-MgO studied by Strong and Brice has been tested with a prism spectrometer by Dr. A. Adel who gets the following transmissions (for a 1-cm layer):λ4μ5μ6μ7μ8μT0.870.880.690.230.01

1937 (1)

J. D. Hardy and G. F. Soderstrom, Rev. Sci. Inst. 8, 419 (1937). These authors describe an improved apparatus for measuring the total radiation from surface at room temperatures. The instrument measures the total radiation emitted by the surface: no correction for the absorption in the optical path is necessary as the instrument is always used near the tested surface.
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

The transmission limit of β-MgO in the infra-red falls between the transmission limits of quartz and fluorite. See J. Strong and R. T. Brice, Phys. Rev. 25, 209 (1935).This material is accordingly suited for use as a so-called Rubens shutter. This shutter makes possible the use of a grating in the spectral region 8–16μ without a fore prism monochromator. For a description of the Rubens shutter see reference 10. The same piece of β-MgO studied by Strong and Brice has been tested with a prism spectrometer by Dr. A. Adel who gets the following transmissions (for a 1-cm layer):λ4μ5μ6μ7μ8μT0.870.880.690.230.01

1932 (1)

John Strong and S. C. Woo, Phys. Rev. 42, 267 (1932).
[Crossref]

1931 (2)

John Strong, Phys. Rev. 37, 1565 (1931); Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1938), p. 383.
[Crossref]

John Strong, Phys. Rev. 38, 1818 (1931).
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

M. Czerny, Zeits. f. Physik 16, 321 (1923).
[Crossref]

1919 (1)

T. Liebisch and H. Rubens, Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Ber. 16, 198, 876 (1919); M. Czerny and H. Röder, “Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Ultrarottechnik” and also Frank Matossi, “Ergebnisse der Ultrarotforschung” Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften Vol.  17, 1938.
[Crossref]

1901 (1)

H. Rubens and F. Kurlbaum, Ann. d. Physik 4, 649 (1901).
[Crossref]

1897 (2)

E. F. Nichols, Ann. d. Physik 60, 401 (1897).
[Crossref]

H. Rubens and E. F. Nichols, Ann. d. Physik 60, 418 (1897).
[Crossref]

Brice, R. T.

The transmission limit of β-MgO in the infra-red falls between the transmission limits of quartz and fluorite. See J. Strong and R. T. Brice, Phys. Rev. 25, 209 (1935).This material is accordingly suited for use as a so-called Rubens shutter. This shutter makes possible the use of a grating in the spectral region 8–16μ without a fore prism monochromator. For a description of the Rubens shutter see reference 10. The same piece of β-MgO studied by Strong and Brice has been tested with a prism spectrometer by Dr. A. Adel who gets the following transmissions (for a 1-cm layer):λ4μ5μ6μ7μ8μT0.870.880.690.230.01

Czerny, M.

M. Czerny, Zeits. f. Physik 16, 321 (1923).
[Crossref]

Hardy, J. D.

J. D. Hardy and G. F. Soderstrom, Rev. Sci. Inst. 8, 419 (1937). These authors describe an improved apparatus for measuring the total radiation from surface at room temperatures. The instrument measures the total radiation emitted by the surface: no correction for the absorption in the optical path is necessary as the instrument is always used near the tested surface.
[Crossref]

Kurlbaum, F.

H. Rubens and F. Kurlbaum, Ann. d. Physik 4, 649 (1901).
[Crossref]

Liebisch, T.

T. Liebisch and H. Rubens, Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Ber. 16, 198, 876 (1919); M. Czerny and H. Röder, “Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Ultrarottechnik” and also Frank Matossi, “Ergebnisse der Ultrarotforschung” Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften Vol.  17, 1938.
[Crossref]

Nichols, E. F.

E. F. Nichols, Ann. d. Physik 60, 401 (1897).
[Crossref]

H. Rubens and E. F. Nichols, Ann. d. Physik 60, 418 (1897).
[Crossref]

Rubens, H.

T. Liebisch and H. Rubens, Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Ber. 16, 198, 876 (1919); M. Czerny and H. Röder, “Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Ultrarottechnik” and also Frank Matossi, “Ergebnisse der Ultrarotforschung” Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften Vol.  17, 1938.
[Crossref]

H. Rubens and F. Kurlbaum, Ann. d. Physik 4, 649 (1901).
[Crossref]

H. Rubens and E. F. Nichols, Ann. d. Physik 60, 418 (1897).
[Crossref]

Soderstrom, G. F.

J. D. Hardy and G. F. Soderstrom, Rev. Sci. Inst. 8, 419 (1937). These authors describe an improved apparatus for measuring the total radiation from surface at room temperatures. The instrument measures the total radiation emitted by the surface: no correction for the absorption in the optical path is necessary as the instrument is always used near the tested surface.
[Crossref]

Strong, J.

The transmission limit of β-MgO in the infra-red falls between the transmission limits of quartz and fluorite. See J. Strong and R. T. Brice, Phys. Rev. 25, 209 (1935).This material is accordingly suited for use as a so-called Rubens shutter. This shutter makes possible the use of a grating in the spectral region 8–16μ without a fore prism monochromator. For a description of the Rubens shutter see reference 10. The same piece of β-MgO studied by Strong and Brice has been tested with a prism spectrometer by Dr. A. Adel who gets the following transmissions (for a 1-cm layer):λ4μ5μ6μ7μ8μT0.870.880.690.230.01

Strong, John

John Strong and S. C. Woo, Phys. Rev. 42, 267 (1932).
[Crossref]

John Strong, Phys. Rev. 37, 1565 (1931); Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1938), p. 383.
[Crossref]

John Strong, Phys. Rev. 38, 1818 (1931).
[Crossref]

Woo, S. C.

John Strong and S. C. Woo, Phys. Rev. 42, 267 (1932).
[Crossref]

Ann. d. Physik (3)

H. Rubens and F. Kurlbaum, Ann. d. Physik 4, 649 (1901).
[Crossref]

E. F. Nichols, Ann. d. Physik 60, 401 (1897).
[Crossref]

H. Rubens and E. F. Nichols, Ann. d. Physik 60, 418 (1897).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (4)

John Strong, Phys. Rev. 37, 1565 (1931); Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1938), p. 383.
[Crossref]

John Strong, Phys. Rev. 38, 1818 (1931).
[Crossref]

John Strong and S. C. Woo, Phys. Rev. 42, 267 (1932).
[Crossref]

The transmission limit of β-MgO in the infra-red falls between the transmission limits of quartz and fluorite. See J. Strong and R. T. Brice, Phys. Rev. 25, 209 (1935).This material is accordingly suited for use as a so-called Rubens shutter. This shutter makes possible the use of a grating in the spectral region 8–16μ without a fore prism monochromator. For a description of the Rubens shutter see reference 10. The same piece of β-MgO studied by Strong and Brice has been tested with a prism spectrometer by Dr. A. Adel who gets the following transmissions (for a 1-cm layer):λ4μ5μ6μ7μ8μT0.870.880.690.230.01

Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Ber. (1)

T. Liebisch and H. Rubens, Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Ber. 16, 198, 876 (1919); M. Czerny and H. Röder, “Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Ultrarottechnik” and also Frank Matossi, “Ergebnisse der Ultrarotforschung” Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften Vol.  17, 1938.
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

J. D. Hardy and G. F. Soderstrom, Rev. Sci. Inst. 8, 419 (1937). These authors describe an improved apparatus for measuring the total radiation from surface at room temperatures. The instrument measures the total radiation emitted by the surface: no correction for the absorption in the optical path is necessary as the instrument is always used near the tested surface.
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. Physik (1)

M. Czerny, Zeits. f. Physik 16, 321 (1923).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

This apparatus was described at the meetings of the American Physical Society in San Diego, 1938, and Washington, 1939. See Phys. Rev. 54, 242 (1938); Phys. Rev. 55, 1114 (1939).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rubens-Nichols arrangement for obtaining residual-rays.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy distribution in the 5-crystal quartz residual-ray band with various filters. Note: the scale of abscissa is the same as that of Fig. 5. See also Fig. 7.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Small-crystal residual-ray apparatus.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Residual-ray bands of the hot glass envelope of a tungsten lamp, obtained with 0 (top curve), 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 (lowest curve) quartz reflections.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental arrangement used to get curves shown in Figs. 2, 5 and 7.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Residual-ray bands obtained with five reflections of quartz, of apophyllite and of carborundum. The absorption of the atmosphere in the zenith direction for approximately 1.5 cm precipitable water. (This curve is determined in part by measurements using apparatus shown in Fig. 4 and observing the intensity of sunlight in the quartz and carborundum residual-ray bands. But the details are derived from A. Adel’s curve, Astrophys. J. 89 (1939).)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diurnal variation of the surface temperature of the south wall of the Mudd Geology Building (exposed to sunlight).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( 10.9 × 10 - 2 ) 2 ( 0.5 × 10 - 2 ) 2 ~ 3 × 10 - 7 ,
( 4.15 × 10 - 2 ) 4 ~ 3 × 10 - 6 .
2 × 10 - 8 .
t ° R = 100 ( d t - d 0 ) / ( d 100 - d 0 ) .
A = 4.4 τ .