Abstract

A photo-e.m.f. effect is observed in Tl2S produced by partial sulphurization of a thallium disk or of an evaporated thallium layer. The photosensitivity is observed to be as high as 6000·10−6 ampere/lumen. Both open-circuit-voltage and short-circuit-current are observed in some cells to be directly proportional to the incident light intensity at all temperatures. In other cells, especially those displaying high photo-response, the open-circuit-voltage and short-circuit-current tend to saturate at high light intensities. The spectral photosensitivity curve possesses a maximum at 9800A±200A with long and short wave thresholds at 15,000 and 6500A, respectively. The short-circuit-current increases with decreasing temperature down to about −45°C and then decreases continuously down to −180°C. The position of the maximum varies somewhat from cell to cell. The photoelectric output of the cells when measured as a function of frequency of interruption of the incident light displays a recession of 75 percent at 20,000 cycles.

© 1939 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Frenkel and A. Joffè, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 1, 60 (1932).
  2. R. Robertson, J. J. Fox, and A. E. Martin, Nature 129, 579 (1932); Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A232, 463 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Dember, Naturwiss. 20, 758 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Pelz, Naturwiss. 21, 517 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Dember, Physik. Zeits. 32, 554 (1931).
  6. F. C. Nix, Rev. Mod. Phys. 4, 723 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Duhme and W. Schottky, Naturwiss. 18, 735 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  8. Campbell and Ritchie, Photoelectric Cells (Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1934).
  9. M. Dubar, Comptes rendus 193, 659 (1931).
  10. B. Kolomiez, (Comptes rendus (Doklady) de l’Academie des Sciences d l’U. R. S. S. 141938) has recently published a brief note concerning a similar cell.
  11. O. v. Auwers and H. Kerschbaum, Ann. d. Physik 7, 129 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Bergmann, Physik. Zeits. 33, 513 (1932).
  13. M. Borissow, C. Sinelnikow, and A. Walther, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 3, 146 (1933).
  14. L. A. Wood, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 196 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  15. Mme. Roy-Pochon, Comptes rendus 198, 2083 (1934).
  16. F. C. Nix, Phys. Rev. 47, 72 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. W. Coblentz, Sci. Paper, Nat. Bur. Standards, No.  380 (1920).
  18. A. F. Joffè, Semi-Conducteurs Electroniques (Hermann & Cie, Paris, 1935).

1938 (1)

B. Kolomiez, (Comptes rendus (Doklady) de l’Academie des Sciences d l’U. R. S. S. 141938) has recently published a brief note concerning a similar cell.

1935 (2)

L. A. Wood, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 196 (1935).
[Crossref]

F. C. Nix, Phys. Rev. 47, 72 (1935).
[Crossref]

1934 (1)

Mme. Roy-Pochon, Comptes rendus 198, 2083 (1934).

1933 (2)

M. Borissow, C. Sinelnikow, and A. Walther, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 3, 146 (1933).

S. Pelz, Naturwiss. 21, 517 (1933).
[Crossref]

1932 (5)

J. Frenkel and A. Joffè, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 1, 60 (1932).

R. Robertson, J. J. Fox, and A. E. Martin, Nature 129, 579 (1932); Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A232, 463 (1934).
[Crossref]

H. Dember, Naturwiss. 20, 758 (1932).
[Crossref]

F. C. Nix, Rev. Mod. Phys. 4, 723 (1932).
[Crossref]

L. Bergmann, Physik. Zeits. 33, 513 (1932).

1931 (2)

M. Dubar, Comptes rendus 193, 659 (1931).

H. Dember, Physik. Zeits. 32, 554 (1931).

1930 (2)

E. Duhme and W. Schottky, Naturwiss. 18, 735 (1930).
[Crossref]

O. v. Auwers and H. Kerschbaum, Ann. d. Physik 7, 129 (1930).
[Crossref]

1920 (1)

W. W. Coblentz, Sci. Paper, Nat. Bur. Standards, No.  380 (1920).

Auwers, O. v.

O. v. Auwers and H. Kerschbaum, Ann. d. Physik 7, 129 (1930).
[Crossref]

Bergmann, L.

L. Bergmann, Physik. Zeits. 33, 513 (1932).

Borissow, M.

M. Borissow, C. Sinelnikow, and A. Walther, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 3, 146 (1933).

Campbell,

Campbell and Ritchie, Photoelectric Cells (Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1934).

Coblentz, W. W.

W. W. Coblentz, Sci. Paper, Nat. Bur. Standards, No.  380 (1920).

Dember, H.

H. Dember, Naturwiss. 20, 758 (1932).
[Crossref]

H. Dember, Physik. Zeits. 32, 554 (1931).

Dubar, M.

M. Dubar, Comptes rendus 193, 659 (1931).

Duhme, E.

E. Duhme and W. Schottky, Naturwiss. 18, 735 (1930).
[Crossref]

Fox, J. J.

R. Robertson, J. J. Fox, and A. E. Martin, Nature 129, 579 (1932); Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A232, 463 (1934).
[Crossref]

Frenkel, J.

J. Frenkel and A. Joffè, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 1, 60 (1932).

Joffè, A.

J. Frenkel and A. Joffè, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 1, 60 (1932).

Joffè, A. F.

A. F. Joffè, Semi-Conducteurs Electroniques (Hermann & Cie, Paris, 1935).

Kerschbaum, H.

O. v. Auwers and H. Kerschbaum, Ann. d. Physik 7, 129 (1930).
[Crossref]

Kolomiez, B.

B. Kolomiez, (Comptes rendus (Doklady) de l’Academie des Sciences d l’U. R. S. S. 141938) has recently published a brief note concerning a similar cell.

Martin, A. E.

R. Robertson, J. J. Fox, and A. E. Martin, Nature 129, 579 (1932); Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A232, 463 (1934).
[Crossref]

Nix, F. C.

F. C. Nix, Phys. Rev. 47, 72 (1935).
[Crossref]

F. C. Nix, Rev. Mod. Phys. 4, 723 (1932).
[Crossref]

Pelz, S.

S. Pelz, Naturwiss. 21, 517 (1933).
[Crossref]

Ritchie,

Campbell and Ritchie, Photoelectric Cells (Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1934).

Robertson, R.

R. Robertson, J. J. Fox, and A. E. Martin, Nature 129, 579 (1932); Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A232, 463 (1934).
[Crossref]

Roy-Pochon, Mme.

Mme. Roy-Pochon, Comptes rendus 198, 2083 (1934).

Schottky, W.

E. Duhme and W. Schottky, Naturwiss. 18, 735 (1930).
[Crossref]

Sinelnikow, C.

M. Borissow, C. Sinelnikow, and A. Walther, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 3, 146 (1933).

Walther, A.

M. Borissow, C. Sinelnikow, and A. Walther, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 3, 146 (1933).

Wood, L. A.

L. A. Wood, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 196 (1935).
[Crossref]

Ann. d. Physik (1)

O. v. Auwers and H. Kerschbaum, Ann. d. Physik 7, 129 (1930).
[Crossref]

Comptes rendus (2)

Mme. Roy-Pochon, Comptes rendus 198, 2083 (1934).

M. Dubar, Comptes rendus 193, 659 (1931).

Comptes rendus (Doklady) de l’Academie des Sciences d l’U. R. S. S. (1)

B. Kolomiez, (Comptes rendus (Doklady) de l’Academie des Sciences d l’U. R. S. S. 141938) has recently published a brief note concerning a similar cell.

Nature (1)

R. Robertson, J. J. Fox, and A. E. Martin, Nature 129, 579 (1932); Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A232, 463 (1934).
[Crossref]

Naturwiss. (3)

H. Dember, Naturwiss. 20, 758 (1932).
[Crossref]

S. Pelz, Naturwiss. 21, 517 (1933).
[Crossref]

E. Duhme and W. Schottky, Naturwiss. 18, 735 (1930).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

F. C. Nix, Phys. Rev. 47, 72 (1935).
[Crossref]

Physik. Zeits. (2)

L. Bergmann, Physik. Zeits. 33, 513 (1932).

H. Dember, Physik. Zeits. 32, 554 (1931).

Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion (2)

M. Borissow, C. Sinelnikow, and A. Walther, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 3, 146 (1933).

J. Frenkel and A. Joffè, Physik. Zeits. d. Sowjetunion 1, 60 (1932).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. C. Nix, Rev. Mod. Phys. 4, 723 (1932).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

L. A. Wood, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 196 (1935).
[Crossref]

Sci. Paper, Nat. Bur. Standards (1)

W. W. Coblentz, Sci. Paper, Nat. Bur. Standards, No.  380 (1920).

Other (2)

A. F. Joffè, Semi-Conducteurs Electroniques (Hermann & Cie, Paris, 1935).

Campbell and Ritchie, Photoelectric Cells (Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1934).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of the Tl2S photo-e.m.f. cell. Arrow indicates the direction of flow of the photoelectrons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Short-circuit current, (1) and open-circuit voltage, (2) vs. light intensity of a cell at −180°C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photo-current vs. light intensity characteristics with external series resistances of R=0, 50, 300 and 1000 ohms in the measuring circuit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Short-circuit current vs. light intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Open-circuit voltage vs. light intensity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Short-circuit current response vs. temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(1) A typical equi-energy spectral response curve of a Tl2S photo-e.m.f. cell. (2) Optical transmission curve for a thin film of Tl2S on glass.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Curves depicting photoelectric response vs. frequency of interruption of the incident light of (A) a Tl2S photo-e.m.f. cell and (b) a photronic cell (a selenium photo-e.m.f. cell.)