Abstract

Tungsten lamps are now used very extensively in photographic sensitometry, and the wide range of exposures required for various materials makes necessary the accumulation of complete data on lamps of many sizes.

The characteristics of all tungsten incandescent lamps are similar in form, and in this note are described the average characteristics found for twenty lamps frequently used in this work.

From a study of the slope of the straight line, best representing the average candlepower-color temperature relation, it is concluded that the changes in candlepower and color temperature, resulting from a small change in voltage, should be about equally perceptible under good conditions of observation.

© 1939 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. G. Nutting, “Luminosity and Temperature,” Bull. Nat. Bur. Standards 6, 337–46 (1909–10).
    [Crossref]
  2. Marcello Pirani and Hildegard Miething, “Strahlungsenergie, Temperatur, und Helligkeit des schwarzen Körpers,” Verhandlungen der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft,  17, 219–39 (1915).
  3. W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, “Properties of Tungsten and the Characteristics of Tungsten Lamps,” Astrophys. J. 61, 146–85 (1925).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. S. Weaver, “The Calculation of Filters for Color Temperature Conversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 339–42 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  5. Francis E. Cady and Henry B. Dates, (editors), Illuminating Engineering for Students and Engineers (John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1925), First edition, p. 106.
  6. L. E. Barbrow and S. J. Franklin Meyer, “Characteristic Equations of Vacuum and Gas-Filled Tungsten Lamps,” National Bur. Standards J. Research 9, 721–32 (1932).
  7. Jacinto Steinhardt, “Intensity Discrimination in the Human Eye. I. The Relation of ΔI/I to Intensity,” J. General Physiology 20, pp. 185–209 (No. 2, Nov.20) (1936).
    [Crossref]
  8. Irwin G. Priest, “A Proposed Scale for Use in Specifying the Chromaticity of Incandescent Illuminants and Various Phases of Daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 41–5 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  9. Deane B. Judd, “Precision of Color Temperature Measurement under Various Observing Conditions; A New Color Comparator for Incandescent Lamps,” National Bur. Standards J. Research 5, 1161–77 (1930).

1936 (2)

K. S. Weaver, “The Calculation of Filters for Color Temperature Conversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 339–42 (1936).
[Crossref]

Jacinto Steinhardt, “Intensity Discrimination in the Human Eye. I. The Relation of ΔI/I to Intensity,” J. General Physiology 20, pp. 185–209 (No. 2, Nov.20) (1936).
[Crossref]

1933 (1)

1932 (1)

L. E. Barbrow and S. J. Franklin Meyer, “Characteristic Equations of Vacuum and Gas-Filled Tungsten Lamps,” National Bur. Standards J. Research 9, 721–32 (1932).

1930 (1)

Deane B. Judd, “Precision of Color Temperature Measurement under Various Observing Conditions; A New Color Comparator for Incandescent Lamps,” National Bur. Standards J. Research 5, 1161–77 (1930).

1925 (1)

W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, “Properties of Tungsten and the Characteristics of Tungsten Lamps,” Astrophys. J. 61, 146–85 (1925).
[Crossref]

1915 (1)

Marcello Pirani and Hildegard Miething, “Strahlungsenergie, Temperatur, und Helligkeit des schwarzen Körpers,” Verhandlungen der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft,  17, 219–39 (1915).

Barbrow, L. E.

L. E. Barbrow and S. J. Franklin Meyer, “Characteristic Equations of Vacuum and Gas-Filled Tungsten Lamps,” National Bur. Standards J. Research 9, 721–32 (1932).

Forsythe, W. E.

W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, “Properties of Tungsten and the Characteristics of Tungsten Lamps,” Astrophys. J. 61, 146–85 (1925).
[Crossref]

Franklin Meyer, S. J.

L. E. Barbrow and S. J. Franklin Meyer, “Characteristic Equations of Vacuum and Gas-Filled Tungsten Lamps,” National Bur. Standards J. Research 9, 721–32 (1932).

Judd, Deane B.

Deane B. Judd, “Precision of Color Temperature Measurement under Various Observing Conditions; A New Color Comparator for Incandescent Lamps,” National Bur. Standards J. Research 5, 1161–77 (1930).

Miething, Hildegard

Marcello Pirani and Hildegard Miething, “Strahlungsenergie, Temperatur, und Helligkeit des schwarzen Körpers,” Verhandlungen der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft,  17, 219–39 (1915).

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, “Luminosity and Temperature,” Bull. Nat. Bur. Standards 6, 337–46 (1909–10).
[Crossref]

Pirani, Marcello

Marcello Pirani and Hildegard Miething, “Strahlungsenergie, Temperatur, und Helligkeit des schwarzen Körpers,” Verhandlungen der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft,  17, 219–39 (1915).

Priest, Irwin G.

Steinhardt, Jacinto

Jacinto Steinhardt, “Intensity Discrimination in the Human Eye. I. The Relation of ΔI/I to Intensity,” J. General Physiology 20, pp. 185–209 (No. 2, Nov.20) (1936).
[Crossref]

Weaver, K. S.

Worthing, A. G.

W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, “Properties of Tungsten and the Characteristics of Tungsten Lamps,” Astrophys. J. 61, 146–85 (1925).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (1)

W. E. Forsythe and A. G. Worthing, “Properties of Tungsten and the Characteristics of Tungsten Lamps,” Astrophys. J. 61, 146–85 (1925).
[Crossref]

Bull. Nat. Bur. Standards (1)

P. G. Nutting, “Luminosity and Temperature,” Bull. Nat. Bur. Standards 6, 337–46 (1909–10).
[Crossref]

J. General Physiology (1)

Jacinto Steinhardt, “Intensity Discrimination in the Human Eye. I. The Relation of ΔI/I to Intensity,” J. General Physiology 20, pp. 185–209 (No. 2, Nov.20) (1936).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

National Bur. Standards J. Research (2)

Deane B. Judd, “Precision of Color Temperature Measurement under Various Observing Conditions; A New Color Comparator for Incandescent Lamps,” National Bur. Standards J. Research 5, 1161–77 (1930).

L. E. Barbrow and S. J. Franklin Meyer, “Characteristic Equations of Vacuum and Gas-Filled Tungsten Lamps,” National Bur. Standards J. Research 9, 721–32 (1932).

Verhandlungen der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft (1)

Marcello Pirani and Hildegard Miething, “Strahlungsenergie, Temperatur, und Helligkeit des schwarzen Körpers,” Verhandlungen der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft,  17, 219–39 (1915).

Other (1)

Francis E. Cady and Henry B. Dates, (editors), Illuminating Engineering for Students and Engineers (John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1925), First edition, p. 106.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average color temperature, voltage, current and candlepower characteristic of twenty tungsten lamps, showing close approximation to linearity of the candlepower-color temperature characteristic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Color temperature-candlepower relation for tungsten and the Planckian radiator.

Equations (8)

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log 10 C P = A - 11,544 T + 844,200 T 2 .
log 10 C P = A - 13,000 T + 2.061 × 10 6 T 2 ,
log 10 C P = A - 11,350 / T .
C P 1 / C P 0 = ( I 1 / I 0 ) a = ( V 1 / V 0 ) b ,
C P 1 / C P 0 = ( T 1 / T 0 ) x has been used .
log 10 C P 1 C P 0 = 13,000 ( 1 T 0 - 1 T 1 ) + 2.061 × 10 6 ( 1 T 1 2 - 1 T 0 2 ) ,
C P 1 C P 0 = 10 13,000 ( 1 / T 0 - 1 / T 1 ) + 2.061 × 10 6 ( 1 / T 1 2 - 1 / T 0 2 ) .
C P 1 / C P 0 = 10 11,350 ( 1 / T 0 - 1 / T 1 ) .