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  1. Light from a clear blue sky is very generally called “glaring,” yet, as can be seen from Tables I and II, the illumination intensity for such days is well below that of slightly cloudy, or even of overcast days. It has seemed obvious that high color temperature should be avoided.
  2. Anyone having use for detailed data for horizontal and 45° positions can obtain photostatic copies of summary tables by writing to the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
  3. Dr. A. H. Pfund suggested zinc oxide for this purpose, mixed with cold water or as little binder as possible, Dr. G. F. A. Stutz, contributed the material, and Mr. E. F. Hickson, National Bureau of Standards, mixed it in one of his mills.
  4. I. G. Priest, “Report of the Work of the Colorimetry Committee of the International Commission on Illumination and the Actions Taken at the Meeting in Cambridge, England, September 1931,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 431 (1932).Deane B. Judd, “The I.C.I. Standard Observer and Coordinate System for Colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 365 (1933). In connection with the adoption of 6500°K as representative of average daylight, reference should be made to the discussion of “White Light” prepared and circulated by Priest within this country in July1931 as a part of the preparation for action on that subject by the I.C.I. Colorimetry Committee which met and adopted standards the following September. I.C.I. File Reference Document “15 U.S. 6” (National Bureau of Standards file).
    [Crossref]
  5. Perhaps this may only indicate that there is more difference in color temperature than has been supposed between overcast sky from the south (found by Gibson to be closely 6500°K) and overcast sky from the north. It seemed to the writer, in suggesting I.C.I. “C” Illuminant for a first trial—it having been adopted as a standard for average daylight—that it would probably be close to the color of an overcast sky.
  6. Dr. W. E. Forsythe supplied figures for color temperature of 500-, 750- and 1000-watt lamps of type PS52 used. (Letters of December 20, 1937 and March 31, 1938.) 1000-watt, 110-volt750-watt, 115-volt500-watt, 115-voltOperating Voltage°KOperating Voltage°KOperating Voltage°K119.6309712030101203020114.8304811529551152977110300011029101102931105.22953These lamps are rated at 1000-hour life. Regarding color temperature change in tungsten lamps see: Deane B. Judd, “Changes in Color Temperature of Tungsten Filament Lamps at Constant Voltage,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 409 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  7. Deane B. Judd, “Estimation of Chromaticity Differences and Nearest Color Temperature on the Standard 1931 I.C.I. Colorimetric Coordinate System,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 421 (1936).H. P. Gage and Norman Macbeth, “Filters for Artificial Daylighting, Their Grading and Use,” Trans. I.E.S. 31, 995 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  8. See also, Irwin G. Priest, “Proposed Scale for Use in Specifying the Chromaticity of Incandescent Illuminants and Various Phases of Daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 41 (1933). The proposal made in this paper should receive serious consideration. It would be much easier to work in Priest units of microreciprocal degrees of color temperature than in color temperature itself. For reference these units are indicated in Fig. 5 as “mireds.”
    [Crossref]
  9. A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry, 1936. The Abbot data in this book (Tables VI and VII) were prepared by K. S. Gibson and supersede previously published data.
  10. The most recent paper by Luckiesh, Taylor, and Kerr which gives these energy curves gives curves also for Mercury and tungsten lamp combinations, and for Ivanhoe Trutint noon sunlight and north sky light: “Artificial White Light,” General Electric Review, February1938. See also A. H. Taylor, “The Color of Daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930), and “Spectral Distribution of Energy in Common Illuminants,” General Electric Review, Sept.1934.
  11. Davis-Gibson, “Filters for the Reproduction of Sunlight and Daylight and the Determination of Color Temperature,” Misc. Publication, National Bureau of Standards, No. 114, 1931.
  12. Unless otherwise noted, transmission curves for filters given in this paper were measured on a General Electric Recording Spectrophotometer, some in the laboratories of the Interchemical Corporation, some at the National Bureau of Standards.
  13. Similar to curves shown in bulletins describing Sunshine Carbon. See also a recent paper by Bowditch and Downes, “Spectral Distributions and Color-Temperatures of the Radiant Energy from Carbon Arcs Used in the Motion Picture Industry,” J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. 30, No. 4 (1938).
  14. Thomas J. Killian, “Artificial Daylight from Carbon Dioxide Lamps,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 49(A) (1938). Points emphasized are that with tubes having the same characteristics, the quality and quantity of light remain constant.
  15. G. E. Inman, “Characteristics of Fluorescent Lamps,” Trans. I. E. S. paper presented before the thirty-second annual convention of the Illuminating Engineering Society, August29–31, 1938.

1938 (3)

The most recent paper by Luckiesh, Taylor, and Kerr which gives these energy curves gives curves also for Mercury and tungsten lamp combinations, and for Ivanhoe Trutint noon sunlight and north sky light: “Artificial White Light,” General Electric Review, February1938. See also A. H. Taylor, “The Color of Daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930), and “Spectral Distribution of Energy in Common Illuminants,” General Electric Review, Sept.1934.

Similar to curves shown in bulletins describing Sunshine Carbon. See also a recent paper by Bowditch and Downes, “Spectral Distributions and Color-Temperatures of the Radiant Energy from Carbon Arcs Used in the Motion Picture Industry,” J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. 30, No. 4 (1938).

Thomas J. Killian, “Artificial Daylight from Carbon Dioxide Lamps,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 49(A) (1938). Points emphasized are that with tubes having the same characteristics, the quality and quantity of light remain constant.

1936 (2)

1933 (1)

1932 (1)

I. G. Priest, “Report of the Work of the Colorimetry Committee of the International Commission on Illumination and the Actions Taken at the Meeting in Cambridge, England, September 1931,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 431 (1932).Deane B. Judd, “The I.C.I. Standard Observer and Coordinate System for Colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 365 (1933). In connection with the adoption of 6500°K as representative of average daylight, reference should be made to the discussion of “White Light” prepared and circulated by Priest within this country in July1931 as a part of the preparation for action on that subject by the I.C.I. Colorimetry Committee which met and adopted standards the following September. I.C.I. File Reference Document “15 U.S. 6” (National Bureau of Standards file).
[Crossref]

Bowditch,

Similar to curves shown in bulletins describing Sunshine Carbon. See also a recent paper by Bowditch and Downes, “Spectral Distributions and Color-Temperatures of the Radiant Energy from Carbon Arcs Used in the Motion Picture Industry,” J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. 30, No. 4 (1938).

Davis-Gibson,

Davis-Gibson, “Filters for the Reproduction of Sunlight and Daylight and the Determination of Color Temperature,” Misc. Publication, National Bureau of Standards, No. 114, 1931.

Downes,

Similar to curves shown in bulletins describing Sunshine Carbon. See also a recent paper by Bowditch and Downes, “Spectral Distributions and Color-Temperatures of the Radiant Energy from Carbon Arcs Used in the Motion Picture Industry,” J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. 30, No. 4 (1938).

Gibson, K. S.

A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry, 1936. The Abbot data in this book (Tables VI and VII) were prepared by K. S. Gibson and supersede previously published data.

Hardy, A. C.

A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry, 1936. The Abbot data in this book (Tables VI and VII) were prepared by K. S. Gibson and supersede previously published data.

Inman, G. E.

G. E. Inman, “Characteristics of Fluorescent Lamps,” Trans. I. E. S. paper presented before the thirty-second annual convention of the Illuminating Engineering Society, August29–31, 1938.

Judd, Deane B.

Kerr,

The most recent paper by Luckiesh, Taylor, and Kerr which gives these energy curves gives curves also for Mercury and tungsten lamp combinations, and for Ivanhoe Trutint noon sunlight and north sky light: “Artificial White Light,” General Electric Review, February1938. See also A. H. Taylor, “The Color of Daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930), and “Spectral Distribution of Energy in Common Illuminants,” General Electric Review, Sept.1934.

Killian, Thomas J.

Thomas J. Killian, “Artificial Daylight from Carbon Dioxide Lamps,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 49(A) (1938). Points emphasized are that with tubes having the same characteristics, the quality and quantity of light remain constant.

Luckiesh,

The most recent paper by Luckiesh, Taylor, and Kerr which gives these energy curves gives curves also for Mercury and tungsten lamp combinations, and for Ivanhoe Trutint noon sunlight and north sky light: “Artificial White Light,” General Electric Review, February1938. See also A. H. Taylor, “The Color of Daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930), and “Spectral Distribution of Energy in Common Illuminants,” General Electric Review, Sept.1934.

Priest, I. G.

I. G. Priest, “Report of the Work of the Colorimetry Committee of the International Commission on Illumination and the Actions Taken at the Meeting in Cambridge, England, September 1931,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 431 (1932).Deane B. Judd, “The I.C.I. Standard Observer and Coordinate System for Colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 365 (1933). In connection with the adoption of 6500°K as representative of average daylight, reference should be made to the discussion of “White Light” prepared and circulated by Priest within this country in July1931 as a part of the preparation for action on that subject by the I.C.I. Colorimetry Committee which met and adopted standards the following September. I.C.I. File Reference Document “15 U.S. 6” (National Bureau of Standards file).
[Crossref]

Priest, Irwin G.

Taylor,

The most recent paper by Luckiesh, Taylor, and Kerr which gives these energy curves gives curves also for Mercury and tungsten lamp combinations, and for Ivanhoe Trutint noon sunlight and north sky light: “Artificial White Light,” General Electric Review, February1938. See also A. H. Taylor, “The Color of Daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930), and “Spectral Distribution of Energy in Common Illuminants,” General Electric Review, Sept.1934.

General Electric Review (1)

The most recent paper by Luckiesh, Taylor, and Kerr which gives these energy curves gives curves also for Mercury and tungsten lamp combinations, and for Ivanhoe Trutint noon sunlight and north sky light: “Artificial White Light,” General Electric Review, February1938. See also A. H. Taylor, “The Color of Daylight,” Trans. I. E. S. 25, 154 (1930), and “Spectral Distribution of Energy in Common Illuminants,” General Electric Review, Sept.1934.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Thomas J. Killian, “Artificial Daylight from Carbon Dioxide Lamps,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 49(A) (1938). Points emphasized are that with tubes having the same characteristics, the quality and quantity of light remain constant.

I. G. Priest, “Report of the Work of the Colorimetry Committee of the International Commission on Illumination and the Actions Taken at the Meeting in Cambridge, England, September 1931,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 431 (1932).Deane B. Judd, “The I.C.I. Standard Observer and Coordinate System for Colorimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 365 (1933). In connection with the adoption of 6500°K as representative of average daylight, reference should be made to the discussion of “White Light” prepared and circulated by Priest within this country in July1931 as a part of the preparation for action on that subject by the I.C.I. Colorimetry Committee which met and adopted standards the following September. I.C.I. File Reference Document “15 U.S. 6” (National Bureau of Standards file).
[Crossref]

Dr. W. E. Forsythe supplied figures for color temperature of 500-, 750- and 1000-watt lamps of type PS52 used. (Letters of December 20, 1937 and March 31, 1938.) 1000-watt, 110-volt750-watt, 115-volt500-watt, 115-voltOperating Voltage°KOperating Voltage°KOperating Voltage°K119.6309712030101203020114.8304811529551152977110300011029101102931105.22953These lamps are rated at 1000-hour life. Regarding color temperature change in tungsten lamps see: Deane B. Judd, “Changes in Color Temperature of Tungsten Filament Lamps at Constant Voltage,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 409 (1936).
[Crossref]

Deane B. Judd, “Estimation of Chromaticity Differences and Nearest Color Temperature on the Standard 1931 I.C.I. Colorimetric Coordinate System,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 421 (1936).H. P. Gage and Norman Macbeth, “Filters for Artificial Daylighting, Their Grading and Use,” Trans. I.E.S. 31, 995 (1936).
[Crossref]

See also, Irwin G. Priest, “Proposed Scale for Use in Specifying the Chromaticity of Incandescent Illuminants and Various Phases of Daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 41 (1933). The proposal made in this paper should receive serious consideration. It would be much easier to work in Priest units of microreciprocal degrees of color temperature than in color temperature itself. For reference these units are indicated in Fig. 5 as “mireds.”
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. (1)

Similar to curves shown in bulletins describing Sunshine Carbon. See also a recent paper by Bowditch and Downes, “Spectral Distributions and Color-Temperatures of the Radiant Energy from Carbon Arcs Used in the Motion Picture Industry,” J. Soc. Mot. Pic. Eng. 30, No. 4 (1938).

Other (8)

G. E. Inman, “Characteristics of Fluorescent Lamps,” Trans. I. E. S. paper presented before the thirty-second annual convention of the Illuminating Engineering Society, August29–31, 1938.

Davis-Gibson, “Filters for the Reproduction of Sunlight and Daylight and the Determination of Color Temperature,” Misc. Publication, National Bureau of Standards, No. 114, 1931.

Unless otherwise noted, transmission curves for filters given in this paper were measured on a General Electric Recording Spectrophotometer, some in the laboratories of the Interchemical Corporation, some at the National Bureau of Standards.

A. C. Hardy, Handbook of Colorimetry, 1936. The Abbot data in this book (Tables VI and VII) were prepared by K. S. Gibson and supersede previously published data.

Perhaps this may only indicate that there is more difference in color temperature than has been supposed between overcast sky from the south (found by Gibson to be closely 6500°K) and overcast sky from the north. It seemed to the writer, in suggesting I.C.I. “C” Illuminant for a first trial—it having been adopted as a standard for average daylight—that it would probably be close to the color of an overcast sky.

Light from a clear blue sky is very generally called “glaring,” yet, as can be seen from Tables I and II, the illumination intensity for such days is well below that of slightly cloudy, or even of overcast days. It has seemed obvious that high color temperature should be avoided.

Anyone having use for detailed data for horizontal and 45° positions can obtain photostatic copies of summary tables by writing to the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

Dr. A. H. Pfund suggested zinc oxide for this purpose, mixed with cold water or as little binder as possible, Dr. G. F. A. Stutz, contributed the material, and Mr. E. F. Hickson, National Bureau of Standards, mixed it in one of his mills.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Washington laboratory of the Division of Cotton Marketing, United States Department of Agriculture. Latest type of skylight developed to provide natural north daylighting for cotton classing rooms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Artificial daylight installation in Washington laboratories, Division of Cotton Marketing, United States Department of Agriculture. This type of installation was developed for use in the color grading of agricultural products.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Looking into the lamp-and-filter arrangement, above the diffusing glass “skylight” shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative energy curves, reduced to 100 at 560 mμ, of several standards referred to in work with daylight, and several sources (with and without filters) that have been suggested or tried out for use as artificial daylight. Only in D is the scale of relative energy different, changed to give actual transmission values for the two filters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A portion of the I.C.I. (x, y) diagram showing the Planckian locus extending from “A” Illuminant (at 2848°K) to a color temperature considerably higher than 12000°K. Iso-temperature lines are given in microreciprocal degrees (mireds). Illumination standards generally referred to for daylight are shown and several illuminants that have been proposed for use as artificial daylight.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Average of maximum and minimum illumination in footcandles read with a Weston Photo-cell meter for certain sky and classing conditions (for horizontal plane).

Tables Icon

Table II Average of maximum and minimum illumination in footcandles for classing conditions called “Good.”

Tables Icon

Table III Footcandle distribution 32″ from floor, color temperature of lamp-and-filter combination about that of “C” illuminant. Upper figures for 1000-watt lamps; lower figures for 500-watt lamps.

Tables Icon

Table IV Footcandle distribution 32” from floor, lamp-and-filter combination about 7400°K. Five lamps in center group are 500 watt, others 1000 watt.