Abstract

The present paper contains results of experiments carried out to test the theory of latent-image formation recently proposed by Gurney and Mott. In their theory, these authors have introduced the concept of electrolytic transport of Ag+ ions to account for the nucleation of latent image Ag about the sensitivity specks preexistent on the surface of the grains. The Ag+ ions are supposed to diffuse to the specks under the attraction of electrons trapped there during the exposure to light. The first experiment consisted of a series of intermittent exposures made at liquid air temperature with warm-up periods between flashes. The results indicate that something vital to the photographic process takes place during the warm-up period between exposures. The second experiment consisted of a series of Herschel exposures made under the following temperature conditions: (a) White-light exposure 20°C, Herschel exposure 20°C; (b) white-light exposure 20°C, Herschel exposure -186°C; (c) white-light exposure -186°C, Herschel exposure 20°C; (d) white-light and Herschel exposures both at -186°C; (e) case (d) repeated with warm-up period between the exposures. The results obtained are radically different under the different conditions. Finally, results are presented on reciprocity measurements at temperatures 20°C, -78°C, and -186°C.These results show that the low-intensity reciprocity law failure has disappeared at -780°C and that the high intensity failure has practically disappeared at -186°C. All of the foregoing results are shown to have ready interpretation on the Gurney-Mott picture of latent-image formation.

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  1. J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 367 (1936).
  2. R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, Proc. Roy. Soc. 164, 151 (1938).
  3. F. C. Toy, VII th Internat. Cong. Phot. London,p. 14, 1928. See also W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss, Göttingen Math. Phys. KI. 1, 171 (1935).
  4. I. Tamm, Physik. Zeits. Sowjetunion 1, 722 (1932).
  5. T. Svedberg, Phot. J. 62, 183 (1922).
  6. S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and R. P. Loveland, J. Frank. Inst. 200, 51 (1925). S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and E. P. Wightman, Phot. J. 67, 281 (1927).
  7. W. Clark, Phot. J. 48, 1 (1924).
  8. W. Clark and F. C. Toy, Phil. Mag. 44, 352 (1922).
  9. S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 65, 1 (1925).
  10. W. Clark, Brit. J. Phot. 74, 227 (1927).
  11. G. Glaser and W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Math. Phys. KL. 2, 91 (1936).
  12. W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Math. Phys. Kl. 1, 171 (1935).
  13. C. Tubandt and S. Eggert, Zeits. f. anorg. allgem. Chemie 110, 196 (1920).
  14. I. Frenkel, Zeits. f. Physik 35, 652 (1926).
  15. W. Jost, J. Chem. Phys. 1, 466 (1933).
  16. C. Wagner and J. Beyer, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 32B, 113 (1936).
  17. W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gott., Math. Phys. Kl. 1, 171 (1935).
  18. A. P. H. Trivelli, J. Frank. Inst. 207, 765 (1929).
  19. N. F. Mott, Plot. J. Special Number 77, 286 (1938).
  20. W. F. Berg (private communication).
  21. J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 4 (1935).
  22. L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 305 (1923).
  23. W. F. Berg and K. Mendelssohn (private communication).

Berg, W. F.

W. F. Berg (private communication).

W. F. Berg and K. Mendelssohn (private communication).

Beyer, J.

C. Wagner and J. Beyer, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 32B, 113 (1936).

Clark, W.

W. Clark, Phot. J. 48, 1 (1924).

W. Clark and F. C. Toy, Phil. Mag. 44, 352 (1922).

W. Clark, Brit. J. Phot. 74, 227 (1927).

Eggert, S.

C. Tubandt and S. Eggert, Zeits. f. anorg. allgem. Chemie 110, 196 (1920).

Frenkel, I.

I. Frenkel, Zeits. f. Physik 35, 652 (1926).

Glaser, G.

G. Glaser and W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Math. Phys. KL. 2, 91 (1936).

Gurney, R. W.

R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, Proc. Roy. Soc. 164, 151 (1938).

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 305 (1923).

Jost, W.

W. Jost, J. Chem. Phys. 1, 466 (1933).

Lehfeldt, W.

G. Glaser and W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Math. Phys. KL. 2, 91 (1936).

W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Math. Phys. Kl. 1, 171 (1935).

W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gott., Math. Phys. Kl. 1, 171 (1935).

Loveland, R. P.

S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and R. P. Loveland, J. Frank. Inst. 200, 51 (1925). S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and E. P. Wightman, Phot. J. 67, 281 (1927).

Mendelssohn, K.

W. F. Berg and K. Mendelssohn (private communication).

Mott, N. F.

N. F. Mott, Plot. J. Special Number 77, 286 (1938).

R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, Proc. Roy. Soc. 164, 151 (1938).

Sheppard, S. E.

S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and R. P. Loveland, J. Frank. Inst. 200, 51 (1925). S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and E. P. Wightman, Phot. J. 67, 281 (1927).

S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 65, 1 (1925).

Svedberg, T.

T. Svedberg, Phot. J. 62, 183 (1922).

Tamm, I.

I. Tamm, Physik. Zeits. Sowjetunion 1, 722 (1932).

Toy, F. C.

F. C. Toy, VII th Internat. Cong. Phot. London,p. 14, 1928. See also W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss, Göttingen Math. Phys. KI. 1, 171 (1935).

W. Clark and F. C. Toy, Phil. Mag. 44, 352 (1922).

Trivelli, A. P. H.

A. P. H. Trivelli, J. Frank. Inst. 207, 765 (1929).

S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and R. P. Loveland, J. Frank. Inst. 200, 51 (1925). S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and E. P. Wightman, Phot. J. 67, 281 (1927).

Tubandt, C.

C. Tubandt and S. Eggert, Zeits. f. anorg. allgem. Chemie 110, 196 (1920).

Wagner, C.

C. Wagner and J. Beyer, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 32B, 113 (1936).

Webb, J. H.

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 367 (1936).

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 4 (1935).

Other (23)

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 367 (1936).

R. W. Gurney and N. F. Mott, Proc. Roy. Soc. 164, 151 (1938).

F. C. Toy, VII th Internat. Cong. Phot. London,p. 14, 1928. See also W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss, Göttingen Math. Phys. KI. 1, 171 (1935).

I. Tamm, Physik. Zeits. Sowjetunion 1, 722 (1932).

T. Svedberg, Phot. J. 62, 183 (1922).

S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and R. P. Loveland, J. Frank. Inst. 200, 51 (1925). S. E. Sheppard, A. P. H. Trivelli, and E. P. Wightman, Phot. J. 67, 281 (1927).

W. Clark, Phot. J. 48, 1 (1924).

W. Clark and F. C. Toy, Phil. Mag. 44, 352 (1922).

S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 65, 1 (1925).

W. Clark, Brit. J. Phot. 74, 227 (1927).

G. Glaser and W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Math. Phys. KL. 2, 91 (1936).

W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Math. Phys. Kl. 1, 171 (1935).

C. Tubandt and S. Eggert, Zeits. f. anorg. allgem. Chemie 110, 196 (1920).

I. Frenkel, Zeits. f. Physik 35, 652 (1926).

W. Jost, J. Chem. Phys. 1, 466 (1933).

C. Wagner and J. Beyer, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 32B, 113 (1936).

W. Lehfeldt, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gott., Math. Phys. Kl. 1, 171 (1935).

A. P. H. Trivelli, J. Frank. Inst. 207, 765 (1929).

N. F. Mott, Plot. J. Special Number 77, 286 (1938).

W. F. Berg (private communication).

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 4 (1935).

L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 305 (1923).

W. F. Berg and K. Mendelssohn (private communication).

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