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Conventional vertical illuminator. Light enters from the right. About 10 percent is reflected to the specimen by the plain glass reflector.
Polarizing vertical illuminator. Light enters the calcite prism from below, is divided into the ordinary and extraordinary rays. The ordinary ray is reflected at the dividing surface between
Polarizing vertical illuminator with quarter-wave plate. Introduction of the quarter-wave plate is equivalent to introducing a half-wave plate between a polarizer and analyzer since the light passes through this plate twice. This gives bright field illumination.