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Figures (4)

F. 1
F. 1

Conventional vertical illuminator. Light enters from the right. About 10 percent is reflected to the specimen by the plain glass reflector.

F. 2
F. 2

Polarizing vertical illuminator. Light enters the calcite prism from below, is divided into the ordinary and extraordinary rays. The ordinary ray is reflected at the dividing surface between A and B and the extraordinary ray is transmitted to the specimen. A perfect reflecting specimen would reflect the plane polarized light through the prism back to the light source. Depolarization at the specimen will reflect light which may be vibrating in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the figure. This light will be reflected at the dividing surface between A and B and again at the silvered surface to the eyepiece where the specimen will become visible. This examination is equivalent to the examination of a transparent specimen between crossed Nicols.

F. 3
F. 3

Polarizing vertical illuminator with quarter-wave plate. Introduction of the quarter-wave plate is equivalent to introducing a half-wave plate between a polarizer and analyzer since the light passes through this plate twice. This gives bright field illumination.

F. 4
F. 4

Research metallographic equipment embodying polarizing vertical illuminator.