Abstract

In order to construct a most intense source of the continuous spectrum of hydrogen, the most favorable conditions were systematically investigated. The intensity varied linearly with the current density except for very high current densities where it varied less rapidly. The pressure for a maximum of intensity was found to be a function of the current density and practically varied from 1 to 2 mm. A study of the relation of the intensity to length, surface, and cross section of the capillary was made. On the basis of these results a powerful source of the continuum was constructed. This source was compared with the positive crater of the carbon arc and found to be superior in intensity below 2925A.

© 1938 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Z. Bay and W. Steiner, Zeits. f. Physik. 45, 337 (1927);E. O. Lawrence and N. E. Edlefsen, Rev. Sci. Inst. 1, 45 (1930);G. B. Kistiakowsky, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 549 (1931);H. C. Urey, G. M. Murphy, and J. A. Duncan, Rev. Sci. Inst. 3, 497 (1932);W. M. Powell, Phys. Rev. 45, 154 (1934);O. Darbyshire, J. Sci. Inst. 10, 322 (1933);H. J. J. Braddick, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 30, 355 (1934);Daniel S. Stevens, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 40 (1935);Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 260 (1935);W. H. Watson and D. G. Hurst, Can. J. Research 13, 19–21 (1935);R. H. Munch, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 1863 (1935);H. C. Gull and A. E. Martin, J. Sci. Inst. 12, 379 (1935);F. Almasey and G. Kortüm, Zeits. f. Elektrochem. 42, 607 (1936);G. Jacobi, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 17, 11, 382 (1936);Physik. Zeits. 37, 808 (1936);G. Déjardin, Rev. Trimestr. Canadienne 23, 238 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Chalonge, Ann. de physique 1, 123 (1934).
  3. W. Finkelnburg, Physik. Zeits. 31, 1 (1930)and Physik. Zeits. 34, 529 (1933).
  4. O. W. Richardson, Molecular Hydrogen and Its Spectrum (Yale University Press, 1934).
  5. Moreover, a large part of the power is wasted as heat because of impacts of the second kind.
  6. R. W. Wood, Proc. Roy. Soc. A102, 1 (1922).
    [Crossref]
  7. I. G. Winans and E. C. G. Stueckelberg, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 4, 867 (1928).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. 49, 345 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. E. Gonsalves, Physica 2, 1003 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Barbier, D. Chalonge, H. Kienle, and J. Wempe, Zeits. f. Astrophys. 12, 178 (1936).
  11. Reiss, Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 16 ( Geiger and Scheel) (Julius Springer, 1927), p. 339.
  12. K. F. Bonhoeffer, Naturwiss,  6, 201 (1927).
  13. G. Jacobi, reference 1.
  14. F. Almasey and G. Kortüm, reference 1.
  15. O. Darbyshire, reference 1.
  16. The capillary was made by H. W. Leighton, laboratory glass-blower.
  17. A. A. Frost and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem Phys. 4, 642 (1936).
    [Crossref]

1936 (3)

N. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. 49, 345 (1936).
[Crossref]

D. Barbier, D. Chalonge, H. Kienle, and J. Wempe, Zeits. f. Astrophys. 12, 178 (1936).

A. A. Frost and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem Phys. 4, 642 (1936).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

V. E. Gonsalves, Physica 2, 1003 (1935).
[Crossref]

1934 (1)

D. Chalonge, Ann. de physique 1, 123 (1934).

1930 (1)

W. Finkelnburg, Physik. Zeits. 31, 1 (1930)and Physik. Zeits. 34, 529 (1933).

1928 (1)

I. G. Winans and E. C. G. Stueckelberg, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 4, 867 (1928).
[Crossref]

1927 (2)

Z. Bay and W. Steiner, Zeits. f. Physik. 45, 337 (1927);E. O. Lawrence and N. E. Edlefsen, Rev. Sci. Inst. 1, 45 (1930);G. B. Kistiakowsky, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 549 (1931);H. C. Urey, G. M. Murphy, and J. A. Duncan, Rev. Sci. Inst. 3, 497 (1932);W. M. Powell, Phys. Rev. 45, 154 (1934);O. Darbyshire, J. Sci. Inst. 10, 322 (1933);H. J. J. Braddick, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 30, 355 (1934);Daniel S. Stevens, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 40 (1935);Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 260 (1935);W. H. Watson and D. G. Hurst, Can. J. Research 13, 19–21 (1935);R. H. Munch, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 1863 (1935);H. C. Gull and A. E. Martin, J. Sci. Inst. 12, 379 (1935);F. Almasey and G. Kortüm, Zeits. f. Elektrochem. 42, 607 (1936);G. Jacobi, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 17, 11, 382 (1936);Physik. Zeits. 37, 808 (1936);G. Déjardin, Rev. Trimestr. Canadienne 23, 238 (1936).
[Crossref]

K. F. Bonhoeffer, Naturwiss,  6, 201 (1927).

1922 (1)

R. W. Wood, Proc. Roy. Soc. A102, 1 (1922).
[Crossref]

Almasey, F.

F. Almasey and G. Kortüm, reference 1.

Barbier, D.

D. Barbier, D. Chalonge, H. Kienle, and J. Wempe, Zeits. f. Astrophys. 12, 178 (1936).

Bay, Z.

Z. Bay and W. Steiner, Zeits. f. Physik. 45, 337 (1927);E. O. Lawrence and N. E. Edlefsen, Rev. Sci. Inst. 1, 45 (1930);G. B. Kistiakowsky, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 549 (1931);H. C. Urey, G. M. Murphy, and J. A. Duncan, Rev. Sci. Inst. 3, 497 (1932);W. M. Powell, Phys. Rev. 45, 154 (1934);O. Darbyshire, J. Sci. Inst. 10, 322 (1933);H. J. J. Braddick, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 30, 355 (1934);Daniel S. Stevens, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 40 (1935);Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 260 (1935);W. H. Watson and D. G. Hurst, Can. J. Research 13, 19–21 (1935);R. H. Munch, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 1863 (1935);H. C. Gull and A. E. Martin, J. Sci. Inst. 12, 379 (1935);F. Almasey and G. Kortüm, Zeits. f. Elektrochem. 42, 607 (1936);G. Jacobi, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 17, 11, 382 (1936);Physik. Zeits. 37, 808 (1936);G. Déjardin, Rev. Trimestr. Canadienne 23, 238 (1936).
[Crossref]

Bonhoeffer, K. F.

K. F. Bonhoeffer, Naturwiss,  6, 201 (1927).

Chalonge, D.

D. Barbier, D. Chalonge, H. Kienle, and J. Wempe, Zeits. f. Astrophys. 12, 178 (1936).

D. Chalonge, Ann. de physique 1, 123 (1934).

Darbyshire, O.

O. Darbyshire, reference 1.

Finkelnburg, W.

W. Finkelnburg, Physik. Zeits. 31, 1 (1930)and Physik. Zeits. 34, 529 (1933).

Frost, A. A.

A. A. Frost and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem Phys. 4, 642 (1936).
[Crossref]

Geiger,

Reiss, Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 16 ( Geiger and Scheel) (Julius Springer, 1927), p. 339.

Gonsalves, V. E.

V. E. Gonsalves, Physica 2, 1003 (1935).
[Crossref]

Jacobi, G.

G. Jacobi, reference 1.

Kienle, H.

D. Barbier, D. Chalonge, H. Kienle, and J. Wempe, Zeits. f. Astrophys. 12, 178 (1936).

Kortüm, G.

F. Almasey and G. Kortüm, reference 1.

Leighton, H. W.

The capillary was made by H. W. Leighton, laboratory glass-blower.

Oldenberg, O.

A. A. Frost and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem Phys. 4, 642 (1936).
[Crossref]

Reiss,

Reiss, Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 16 ( Geiger and Scheel) (Julius Springer, 1927), p. 339.

Richardson, O. W.

O. W. Richardson, Molecular Hydrogen and Its Spectrum (Yale University Press, 1934).

Scheel,

Reiss, Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 16 ( Geiger and Scheel) (Julius Springer, 1927), p. 339.

Smith, N. D.

N. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. 49, 345 (1936).
[Crossref]

Steiner, W.

Z. Bay and W. Steiner, Zeits. f. Physik. 45, 337 (1927);E. O. Lawrence and N. E. Edlefsen, Rev. Sci. Inst. 1, 45 (1930);G. B. Kistiakowsky, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 549 (1931);H. C. Urey, G. M. Murphy, and J. A. Duncan, Rev. Sci. Inst. 3, 497 (1932);W. M. Powell, Phys. Rev. 45, 154 (1934);O. Darbyshire, J. Sci. Inst. 10, 322 (1933);H. J. J. Braddick, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 30, 355 (1934);Daniel S. Stevens, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 40 (1935);Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 260 (1935);W. H. Watson and D. G. Hurst, Can. J. Research 13, 19–21 (1935);R. H. Munch, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 1863 (1935);H. C. Gull and A. E. Martin, J. Sci. Inst. 12, 379 (1935);F. Almasey and G. Kortüm, Zeits. f. Elektrochem. 42, 607 (1936);G. Jacobi, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 17, 11, 382 (1936);Physik. Zeits. 37, 808 (1936);G. Déjardin, Rev. Trimestr. Canadienne 23, 238 (1936).
[Crossref]

Stueckelberg, E. C. G.

I. G. Winans and E. C. G. Stueckelberg, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 4, 867 (1928).
[Crossref]

Wempe, J.

D. Barbier, D. Chalonge, H. Kienle, and J. Wempe, Zeits. f. Astrophys. 12, 178 (1936).

Winans, I. G.

I. G. Winans and E. C. G. Stueckelberg, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 4, 867 (1928).
[Crossref]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Proc. Roy. Soc. A102, 1 (1922).
[Crossref]

Ann. de physique (1)

D. Chalonge, Ann. de physique 1, 123 (1934).

J. Chem Phys. (1)

A. A. Frost and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem Phys. 4, 642 (1936).
[Crossref]

Naturwiss (1)

K. F. Bonhoeffer, Naturwiss,  6, 201 (1927).

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. 49, 345 (1936).
[Crossref]

Physica (1)

V. E. Gonsalves, Physica 2, 1003 (1935).
[Crossref]

Physik. Zeits. (1)

W. Finkelnburg, Physik. Zeits. 31, 1 (1930)and Physik. Zeits. 34, 529 (1933).

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

I. G. Winans and E. C. G. Stueckelberg, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 4, 867 (1928).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

R. W. Wood, Proc. Roy. Soc. A102, 1 (1922).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. Astrophys. (1)

D. Barbier, D. Chalonge, H. Kienle, and J. Wempe, Zeits. f. Astrophys. 12, 178 (1936).

Zeits. f. Physik. (1)

Z. Bay and W. Steiner, Zeits. f. Physik. 45, 337 (1927);E. O. Lawrence and N. E. Edlefsen, Rev. Sci. Inst. 1, 45 (1930);G. B. Kistiakowsky, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 549 (1931);H. C. Urey, G. M. Murphy, and J. A. Duncan, Rev. Sci. Inst. 3, 497 (1932);W. M. Powell, Phys. Rev. 45, 154 (1934);O. Darbyshire, J. Sci. Inst. 10, 322 (1933);H. J. J. Braddick, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 30, 355 (1934);Daniel S. Stevens, Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 40 (1935);Rev. Sci. Inst. 6, 260 (1935);W. H. Watson and D. G. Hurst, Can. J. Research 13, 19–21 (1935);R. H. Munch, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 1863 (1935);H. C. Gull and A. E. Martin, J. Sci. Inst. 12, 379 (1935);F. Almasey and G. Kortüm, Zeits. f. Elektrochem. 42, 607 (1936);G. Jacobi, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 17, 11, 382 (1936);Physik. Zeits. 37, 808 (1936);G. Déjardin, Rev. Trimestr. Canadienne 23, 238 (1936).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

G. Jacobi, reference 1.

F. Almasey and G. Kortüm, reference 1.

O. Darbyshire, reference 1.

The capillary was made by H. W. Leighton, laboratory glass-blower.

Reiss, Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 16 ( Geiger and Scheel) (Julius Springer, 1927), p. 339.

O. W. Richardson, Molecular Hydrogen and Its Spectrum (Yale University Press, 1934).

Moreover, a large part of the power is wasted as heat because of impacts of the second kind.

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Figures (5)

F. 1
F. 1

Curve showing the intensity of the continuous spectrum for 0.5 mm of hydrogen as a function of the current.

F. 2
F. 2

Curves showing the intensity of the continuous spectrum as a function of pressure for constant current.

F. 3
F. 3

Curves showing the intensity of the continuous spectrum as a function of current for constant pressure.

F. 4
F. 4

Curve showing the intensity of the continuous spectrum as a function of current.

F. 5
F. 5

Diagram of the final discharge tube.