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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Curve A shows the spectral reflectance of a film of blue ink applied to the surface of a white glass substandard. Curve A0 shows the spectral reflectance of the same ink at the same film thickness when applied to the surface of a black glass substandard. Because of the absence of scattering of light in the ink film, this ink would be classed as “transparent.”

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Curve A shows the spectral reflectance of a film of red ink applied to the surface of a white glass substandard. Curve A0 shows the spectral reflectance of the same red ink at the same film thickness when applied to the surface of a black glass substandard. The reflectance values in both cases are relative to a white substandard which is a duplicate of the white glass used in the first case. Because of the scattering of light within the ink film, this ink would be classed as “semi-transparent.” Some inks exhibit so much scattering that they are commonly called “opaque.” In such cases, curve A0 approaches curve A.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

These curves indicate the change in reflectance upon exposure to radiant energy of two different samples of dry titanium dioxide. Curve A in each case is for the dark-adapted sample, while curve Ax is for the same sample after exposure to radiant energy. The lower set of curves exemplify the maximum change that has been noted while the upper set is typical of the commercial products. Many other white pigments show a similar effect.