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  1. A. Imhof, Physik. Zeits. 18, 78 (1917).
  2. Handbuch der Experimental Physik, Vol.  23, 976.
  3. In this paper the abbreviations suggested by Imhof are used as follows: Triboluminescence—TL, Triboluminescent —tl.
  4. C. W. Waggoner, Phys. Rev. 7, 402 (1916).
  5. D. M. Nelson, J. 0. S. A. 12, 207 (1926).
  6. K. Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 196, Wien. Ber. 11a,  136, 43 (1927).K. Przibram and Michailowa Kara, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 149, Wien. Ber. 11a,  131, 511 (1922).F. Urbach, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 261, Wien. Ber. 11a,  139, 353 (1930).
  7. Frances G. Wick, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 389, Wien. Ber. 11a,  145, 689 (1936).
  8. Urbain, Ann. de Chemie et de Phys. 18, 222 (1909).
  9. Haberlandt, Karlik, and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 336, Wien. Ber. 11a,  143, 151 (1934).
  10. F. G. Wick, Phys. Rev. 24, 272 (1924).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Steinmetz, Naturwiss. 24, 172 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Haberlandt, Wien. Ber. 11a,  144, 663 (1936).
  13. Haberlandt and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung313, 11a,  142, 235 (1933).
  14. Longchambon, Comptes rendus 174, 1633 (1922).Comptes rendus 176, 691 (1923).
  15. Wick and Carter, J. O. S. A. 18, 383 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Nyswander and Cohn, Phys. Rev. 36, 1257 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Wick and Slattery, J. O. S. A. 16, 398 (1928).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Nichols and Wick, J. O. S. A. 22, 357 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Nichols and Howes, Carnegie Publication No. 384, p. 172 (1928).
  20. W. P. Headden, Am. J. Sci. 21, 301 (1906).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. P. Headden, Proc. Col. Sci. Soc. 12, 399 (1923).
  22. Purple fluorite from Weardale, specimen 7, Table I, after certain exposure to radium, shows green TL and purple low temperature thermoluminescence. This is due to an excess of Eu which dominates in the TL but not in the thermoluminescence. The green bands of Tb and Dy which dominate in the TL can also be seen in the spectrum of the low temperature thermoluminescence but they are dim compared with the Eu band.
  23. Wiedemann and Schmidt, de Chemie et de Phys. 56, 201 (1895).
  24. Nichols and Howes, Phys. Rev. 27, 803 (1926).

1936 (3)

Frances G. Wick, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 389, Wien. Ber. 11a,  145, 689 (1936).

H. Steinmetz, Naturwiss. 24, 172 (1936).
[CrossRef]

H. Haberlandt, Wien. Ber. 11a,  144, 663 (1936).

1934 (1)

Haberlandt, Karlik, and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 336, Wien. Ber. 11a,  143, 151 (1934).

1933 (1)

Haberlandt and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung313, 11a,  142, 235 (1933).

1932 (1)

Nichols and Wick, J. O. S. A. 22, 357 (1932).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

Nyswander and Cohn, Phys. Rev. 36, 1257 (1930).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

Wick and Carter, J. O. S. A. 18, 383 (1929).
[CrossRef]

1928 (2)

Wick and Slattery, J. O. S. A. 16, 398 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Nichols and Howes, Carnegie Publication No. 384, p. 172 (1928).

1927 (1)

K. Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 196, Wien. Ber. 11a,  136, 43 (1927).K. Przibram and Michailowa Kara, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 149, Wien. Ber. 11a,  131, 511 (1922).F. Urbach, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 261, Wien. Ber. 11a,  139, 353 (1930).

1926 (2)

D. M. Nelson, J. 0. S. A. 12, 207 (1926).

Nichols and Howes, Phys. Rev. 27, 803 (1926).

1924 (1)

F. G. Wick, Phys. Rev. 24, 272 (1924).
[CrossRef]

1923 (1)

W. P. Headden, Proc. Col. Sci. Soc. 12, 399 (1923).

1922 (1)

Longchambon, Comptes rendus 174, 1633 (1922).Comptes rendus 176, 691 (1923).

1917 (1)

A. Imhof, Physik. Zeits. 18, 78 (1917).

1916 (1)

C. W. Waggoner, Phys. Rev. 7, 402 (1916).

1909 (1)

Urbain, Ann. de Chemie et de Phys. 18, 222 (1909).

1906 (1)

W. P. Headden, Am. J. Sci. 21, 301 (1906).
[CrossRef]

1895 (1)

Wiedemann and Schmidt, de Chemie et de Phys. 56, 201 (1895).

Carter,

Wick and Carter, J. O. S. A. 18, 383 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Cohn,

Nyswander and Cohn, Phys. Rev. 36, 1257 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Haberlandt,

Haberlandt, Karlik, and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 336, Wien. Ber. 11a,  143, 151 (1934).

Haberlandt and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung313, 11a,  142, 235 (1933).

Haberlandt, H.

H. Haberlandt, Wien. Ber. 11a,  144, 663 (1936).

Headden, W. P.

W. P. Headden, Proc. Col. Sci. Soc. 12, 399 (1923).

W. P. Headden, Am. J. Sci. 21, 301 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Howes,

Nichols and Howes, Carnegie Publication No. 384, p. 172 (1928).

Nichols and Howes, Phys. Rev. 27, 803 (1926).

Imhof, A.

A. Imhof, Physik. Zeits. 18, 78 (1917).

Karlik,

Haberlandt, Karlik, and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 336, Wien. Ber. 11a,  143, 151 (1934).

Longchambon,

Longchambon, Comptes rendus 174, 1633 (1922).Comptes rendus 176, 691 (1923).

Nelson, D. M.

D. M. Nelson, J. 0. S. A. 12, 207 (1926).

Nichols,

Nichols and Wick, J. O. S. A. 22, 357 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Nichols and Howes, Carnegie Publication No. 384, p. 172 (1928).

Nichols and Howes, Phys. Rev. 27, 803 (1926).

Nyswander,

Nyswander and Cohn, Phys. Rev. 36, 1257 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Przibram,

Haberlandt, Karlik, and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 336, Wien. Ber. 11a,  143, 151 (1934).

Haberlandt and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung313, 11a,  142, 235 (1933).

Przibram, K.

K. Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 196, Wien. Ber. 11a,  136, 43 (1927).K. Przibram and Michailowa Kara, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 149, Wien. Ber. 11a,  131, 511 (1922).F. Urbach, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 261, Wien. Ber. 11a,  139, 353 (1930).

Schmidt,

Wiedemann and Schmidt, de Chemie et de Phys. 56, 201 (1895).

Slattery,

Wick and Slattery, J. O. S. A. 16, 398 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, H.

H. Steinmetz, Naturwiss. 24, 172 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Urbain,

Urbain, Ann. de Chemie et de Phys. 18, 222 (1909).

Waggoner, C. W.

C. W. Waggoner, Phys. Rev. 7, 402 (1916).

Wick,

Nichols and Wick, J. O. S. A. 22, 357 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Wick and Carter, J. O. S. A. 18, 383 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Wick and Slattery, J. O. S. A. 16, 398 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Wick, F. G.

F. G. Wick, Phys. Rev. 24, 272 (1924).
[CrossRef]

Wick, Frances G.

Frances G. Wick, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 389, Wien. Ber. 11a,  145, 689 (1936).

Wiedemann,

Wiedemann and Schmidt, de Chemie et de Phys. 56, 201 (1895).

Am. J. Sci. (1)

W. P. Headden, Am. J. Sci. 21, 301 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Ann. de Chemie et de Phys. (1)

Urbain, Ann. de Chemie et de Phys. 18, 222 (1909).

Carnegie Publication No. 384 (1)

Nichols and Howes, Carnegie Publication No. 384, p. 172 (1928).

Comptes rendus (1)

Longchambon, Comptes rendus 174, 1633 (1922).Comptes rendus 176, 691 (1923).

de Chemie et de Phys. (1)

Wiedemann and Schmidt, de Chemie et de Phys. 56, 201 (1895).

Handbuch der Experimental Physik (1)

Handbuch der Experimental Physik, Vol.  23, 976.

J. 0. S. A. (1)

D. M. Nelson, J. 0. S. A. 12, 207 (1926).

J. O. S. A. (3)

Wick and Carter, J. O. S. A. 18, 383 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Wick and Slattery, J. O. S. A. 16, 398 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Nichols and Wick, J. O. S. A. 22, 357 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung (4)

Haberlandt and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung313, 11a,  142, 235 (1933).

K. Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 196, Wien. Ber. 11a,  136, 43 (1927).K. Przibram and Michailowa Kara, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 149, Wien. Ber. 11a,  131, 511 (1922).F. Urbach, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 261, Wien. Ber. 11a,  139, 353 (1930).

Frances G. Wick, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 389, Wien. Ber. 11a,  145, 689 (1936).

Haberlandt, Karlik, and Przibram, Mitt. d. Inst. f. Radiumforschung, No. 336, Wien. Ber. 11a,  143, 151 (1934).

Naturwiss. (1)

H. Steinmetz, Naturwiss. 24, 172 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (4)

Nyswander and Cohn, Phys. Rev. 36, 1257 (1930).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Wick, Phys. Rev. 24, 272 (1924).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Waggoner, Phys. Rev. 7, 402 (1916).

Nichols and Howes, Phys. Rev. 27, 803 (1926).

Physik. Zeits. (1)

A. Imhof, Physik. Zeits. 18, 78 (1917).

Proc. Col. Sci. Soc. (1)

W. P. Headden, Proc. Col. Sci. Soc. 12, 399 (1923).

Wien. Ber. (1)

H. Haberlandt, Wien. Ber. 11a,  144, 663 (1936).

Other (2)

In this paper the abbreviations suggested by Imhof are used as follows: Triboluminescence—TL, Triboluminescent —tl.

Purple fluorite from Weardale, specimen 7, Table I, after certain exposure to radium, shows green TL and purple low temperature thermoluminescence. This is due to an excess of Eu which dominates in the TL but not in the thermoluminescence. The green bands of Tb and Dy which dominate in the TL can also be seen in the spectrum of the low temperature thermoluminescence but they are dim compared with the Eu band.

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Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table II Synthetic preparations made of CaF2 and rare earths.

Tables Icon

Table IV Natural substances which show triboluminescence like that of fluorite.

Tables Icon

Table V Natural materials showing triboluminescence unlike that of fluorite.

Tables Icon

Table VI Synthetic materials which contain manganese.