Abstract

Tristimulus values have been computed for hypothetical spectrophotometric curves of the type found to give the maximum visual reflectance factor (or transmission factor) for specified chromaticities. These computations have been based on the I.C.I. 1931 data for the normal observer for colorimetry, and on the I.C.I. Illuminants “A” and “C.” By plotting the results on the I.C.I. color mixture diagram, the loci of points characterized by equal maximum efficiencies have been established. Tables have been prepared showing the maximum visual efficiency as a function of excitation purity for twenty-four dominant wave-lengths.

© 1935 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. L. MacAdam, Theory of the Maximum Visual Efficiency of Colored Materials, J. O. S. A. 25, 249–252 (1935).
  2. D. B. Judd, General Formula for Computation of Colorimetric Purity, J. O. S. A. 21, 729–747 (1931).
  3. For complete explanation of notation see J. O. S. A. 25, 250 (1935).

1935 (2)

D. L. MacAdam, Theory of the Maximum Visual Efficiency of Colored Materials, J. O. S. A. 25, 249–252 (1935).

For complete explanation of notation see J. O. S. A. 25, 250 (1935).

1931 (1)

D. B. Judd, General Formula for Computation of Colorimetric Purity, J. O. S. A. 21, 729–747 (1931).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, General Formula for Computation of Colorimetric Purity, J. O. S. A. 21, 729–747 (1931).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, Theory of the Maximum Visual Efficiency of Colored Materials, J. O. S. A. 25, 249–252 (1935).

General Formula for Computation of Colorimetric Purity (1)

D. B. Judd, General Formula for Computation of Colorimetric Purity, J. O. S. A. 21, 729–747 (1931).

J. O. S. A. (1)

For complete explanation of notation see J. O. S. A. 25, 250 (1935).

Theory of the Maximum Visual Efficiency of Colored Materials (1)

D. L. MacAdam, Theory of the Maximum Visual Efficiency of Colored Materials, J. O. S. A. 25, 249–252 (1935).

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Figures (6)

F. 1a
F. 1a

Spectrophotometric curves for two green samples having dominant wave-length about 525 mμ and visual efficiency about 0.50. Box shaped curve, full line, has maximum attainable purity.

F. 1b
F. 1b

Spectrophotometric curves for two purple samples complementary to 505 mμ and having visual efficiency about 0.50.

F. 2
F. 2

Loci in I.C.I. color mixture diagram of points characterized by equal maximum visual efficiencies in Illuminant A. The values of maximum visual efficiency are indicated by numbers placed within the diagram near the corresponding locus. Numbers just outside the bounding locus indicate wave-lengths in millimicrons of spectral light represented by the associated points on that locus.

F. 3
F. 3

Loci in I.C.I. color mixture diagram of points characterized by equal maximum visual efficiencies in Illuminant C. The values of maximum visual efficiency are indicated by numbers placed within the diagram near the corresponding locus. Numbers just outside the bounding locus indicate wave-lengths in millimicrons of spectral light represented by the associated points on that locus.

F. 4
F. 4

Stereoscopic photograph of surface bounding all attainable colors in Illuminant C. Base of this solid is I.C.I. color mixture diagram. The vertical axis is visual efficiency. This surface is fully defined by Fig. 3, which may be regarded as a contour map.

F. 5
F. 5

Maximum visual efficiency plotted against excitation purity for one representative dominant wavelength, 490 mμ. This plot was prepared graphically from Fig. 3, i.e., for Illuminant C.

Tables (6)

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Form A Sample Calculation for Illuminant A. R = Visual efficiency = 0.60 (assigned).

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Form B Sample Calculation for Illuminant A. R = 0.70.

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Table I Points on loci of equal maximum efficiency. Results of computation for Illuminant A. Upper half of table is for curves similar to Fig. 1a. Lower half of table is for curves similar to Fig. 1b.

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Table II Points on loci of equal maximum efficiency. Results of computation for Illuminant C. Upper half of table is for curves similar to Fig. 1a. Lower half of table is for curves similar to Fig. 1b.

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Table III Maximum visual efficiency (%) of colored materials having indicated dominant wave-length and excitation purity for I.C.I, observer and Illuminant A.

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Table IV Maximum visual efficiency (%) of colored materials having indicated dominant wave-length and excitation purity for I.C.I. observer and Illuminant C.

Equations (26)

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λ 1 λ 2 y E
= R 380 780 y ¯ E
380 λ 2 z ¯ E
380 λ 2 x ¯ E
380 λ 1 y ¯ E
380 λ 1 z ¯ E
380 λ 1 x ¯ E
380 λ 2 y ¯ E
λ 1 λ 2 z ¯ E
λ 1 λ 2 x ¯ E
380 λ 1 y ¯ E + λ 1 λ 2 y ¯ E
λ 1 λ 2 y ¯ E
380 780 z ¯ E
380 780 x ¯ E
( 1 R ) 380 780 y ¯ E
380 λ 2 z ¯ E
380 λ 2 x ¯ E
380 λ 1 y ¯ E
λ 2 780 z ¯ E
λ 2 780 x ¯ E
380 λ 2 y ¯ E
380 λ 1 z ¯ E
380 λ 1 x ¯ E
Y = R 380 780 y ¯ E
380 λ 1 z ¯ E + λ 2 380 z ¯ E
y ¯ = Y / S = 0.3445