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Figures (11)

F. 1
F. 1

Spectrophotometric analysis of the paint used in these tests. This paint has a marked drop in reflecting power in the blue and violet regions, but to the eye it seems to be pure white.

F. 2
F. 2

An integrating sphere equipped for testing a sodium arc. The dark incandescent lamp over the sodium arc has an amber bulb and gives light that visually matches the arc in color for routine calibration. The amount of equipment required for this work adds to the difficulty of getting accurate data.

F. 3
F. 3

Diagrammatical sketches of the sphere in partially opened and closed positions. The opened sphere permits light to escape through a wedge-shaped opening into the black photometer room.

F. 4
F. 4

Diagrammatic sketch of the area of the sphere opening. The height to the line V represents the width of white sphere wall uncovered by the flange, and the height to the curved line represents the linear opening between hemispheres.

F. 5
F. 5

Sensitivity of the sphere to variations in the coefficient m. The difference in the ordinates of the two curves represents the loss of sensitivity when testing with the sphere in the open condition. N = 1.018, E = 1.076.

F. 6
F. 6

Sensitivity of the sphere to variations in the factor E. When N = 1.018, m = 0.887. The data in this curve are of assistance in selecting a size of opening that will give the most accurate determination of the integrating factor of the sphere.

F. 7
F. 7

Brightness of the open sphere vs. maximum opening G. The opening of the sphere, at the point of maximum separation, was extended to more than eleven inches without the introduction of any detectable systematic error.

F. 8
F. 8

Sensitivity of the ratio R for variations in the effective coefficient m. The sensitivity of this feature of the method keeps pace with the increasing sensitivity of the instrument as the coefficient m rises. N = 1.018, E = 1.076.

F. 9
F. 9

Relative brightness of the sphere. The computed results by the open-and-shut method were checked by an independent method of somewhat lower inherent accuracy. Paint NL. Open circle—by open-and-shut method; closed circle—by comparison with bar photometer.

F. 10
F. 10

Line spectra of various mercury arcs at four wave-lengths. The families of mercury lines for each type of lamp are connected by lines to bring out more clearly the wide variations in color of this type of arc. Solid circles—uviarc at low pressure; open circles—uviarc at high pressure (arc only); broken line—low pressure; triangles—S – 1 (arc only); squares—high intensity.

F. 11
F. 11

The coefficient of reflection of the complete integrating sphere. The curve shows how the effective coefficient of the sphere varies with the color temperatures of a tungsten lamp.

Tables (1)

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Table I

Equations (27)

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S o = ( 1 + w + b ) S .
m o = ( 1 + w ) m / ( 1 + w + b ) .
B = F m / S ( 1 m ) ,
B o = F m o / S o ( 1 m o ) ,
R = N ( 1 m ) / E ( E N m ) ,
N = 1 + w
E = 1 + w + b .
m = ( 1 E 2 R / N ) ( 1 E R ) .
B = m / ( 1 m )
B o = N m / E ( E N m ) .
B r / B = K ,
m = m r / ( K + ( 1 K ) m r ) .
m r = K m / ( 1 ( 1 K ) m ) .
S o = S .
m o = w m ,
R = w ( 1 m ) / ( 1 w m ) ,
m = ( w R ) / w ( 1 R ) ,
B o = w m / ( 1 w m ) .
b = D 0 θ 1 [ G + g 2 + ( G g ) cos θ 2 V ] d θ ,
θ 1 = cos 1 [ ( 2 V ( H + D ) G ( 2 H + D ) ) / G D ] .
b = ( D / 2 ) [ ( G + g 2 V ) θ 1 + ( G g ) sin θ 1 ] ,
w = 0 θ 1 D V d θ + ( D / 2 ) θ 1 π [ ( G + g ) + ( G g ) cos θ ] d θ .
w = D V θ 1 + ( D / 2 ) [ ( G + g ) ( π θ 1 ) ( G g ) sin θ 1 ] .
C B m = m d B o / B o d m = E / ( E N m )
C B m = m d B / B d m = 1 / ( 1 m )
C P B = E d B o / B o d E = ( 2 E N m ) / ( E N m ) .
C R m = m d R / R d m = m ( E N ) / ( 1 m ) ( E N m )