Abstract

Measurements of the effect of temperature variation on the reciprocity failure curves were made for several types of emulsions and for radiation of several different wavelengths. The effect of temperature variation upon emulsion sensitivity is shown to be very strongly dependent upon the intensity level at which the exposures are made. At very low intensities it is found that the speeds of certain emulsions can be increased several fold by lowering the temperature. An analysis of the data suggests a possible manner of division of the reciprocity curves into two component parts which, presumably, correspond to two different modes of utilization of the exposure in the formation of the latent image. A theoretical formulation based on the foregoing analysis yields the Kron-Halm catenary equation for representing the reciprocity failure curves.

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  2. A. and L. Lumière, Comptes rendus 128, 359 (1899).
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  16. L. Silberstein and J. H. Webb, Phil. Mag. 18, 1 (1934).

Abney, W. DeW.

W. DeW. Abney, Phot. News 28, 315 (1884).

Coblentz, W. W.

W. W. Coblentz, Bull. Bur. Standards 11, 87 (1915).

Dalezki, G.

G. Dalezki, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 18, 233 (1919).

Eggert, J.

J. Eggert and F. Luft, Veröffent. wiss. Zentral-Lab. Phot. Agfa 2, 9 (1931).

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones,. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 305 (1923).

King, E. S.

E. S. King, Pboto-Beacon 17, 267 (1905).

Kron, E.

E. Kron, Publ. Astrophys. Obs. zu Potsdam, No. 67, (1913).

E. Kron, reference 13; J. Halm, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 75, 150 (1915); 78, 379 (1918); L. A. Jones and E. Huse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1079 (1923); 11, 319 (1925); L. A. Jones, V. C. Hall and E. Huse, ibid. 12, 321 (1926); L. A. Jones and V. C. Hall, ibid. 13, 443 (1926); L. A. Jones, V. C. Hall and R. M. Briggs, ibid. 14, 223 (1927).

Luft, F.

J. Eggert and F. Luft, Veröffent. wiss. Zentral-Lab. Phot. Agfa 2, 9 (1931).

Lumière, A.

A. and L. Lumière, Comptes rendus 128, 359 (1899).

Lumière, L.

A. and L. Lumière, Comptes rendus 128, 359 (1899).

Precht, J.

J. Precht and A. Schellen, Arch. wiss. Phot. 1, 58 (1899).

Quirk, R. F.

S. E. Sheppard, E. P. Wightman and R. F. Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).

Schellen, A.

J. Precht and A. Schellen, Arch. wiss. Phot. 1, 58 (1899).

Sheppard, S. E.

S. E. Sheppard, E. P. Wightman and R. F. Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).

Silberstein, L.

L. Silberstein and J. H. Webb, Phil. Mag. 18, 1 (1934).

Wallace, R. J.

R. J. Wallace, Astrophys. J. 28, 39 (1908).

Webb, J. H.

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 316 (1933).

L. Silberstein and J. H. Webb, Phil. Mag. 18, 1 (1934).

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 157 (1933); 23, 316 (1933).

Wightman, E. P.

S. E. Sheppard, E. P. Wightman and R. F. Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).

Zimmern, A.

A. Zimmern, Comptes rendus 174, 453 (1922).

Other

W. DeW. Abney, Phot. News 28, 315 (1884).

A. and L. Lumière, Comptes rendus 128, 359 (1899).

J. Precht and A. Schellen, Arch. wiss. Phot. 1, 58 (1899).

G. Dalezki, Zeits. f. wiss. Phot. 18, 233 (1919).

A. Zimmern, Comptes rendus 174, 453 (1922).

E. S. King, Pboto-Beacon 17, 267 (1905).

R. J. Wallace, Astrophys. J. 28, 39 (1908).

J. Eggert and F. Luft, Veröffent. wiss. Zentral-Lab. Phot. Agfa 2, 9 (1931).

S. E. Sheppard, E. P. Wightman and R. F. Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).

L. A. Jones,. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 305 (1923).

W. W. Coblentz, Bull. Bur. Standards 11, 87 (1915).

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 316 (1933).

E. Kron, Publ. Astrophys. Obs. zu Potsdam, No. 67, (1913).

E. Kron, reference 13; J. Halm, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 75, 150 (1915); 78, 379 (1918); L. A. Jones and E. Huse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1079 (1923); 11, 319 (1925); L. A. Jones, V. C. Hall and E. Huse, ibid. 12, 321 (1926); L. A. Jones and V. C. Hall, ibid. 13, 443 (1926); L. A. Jones, V. C. Hall and R. M. Briggs, ibid. 14, 223 (1927).

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 157 (1933); 23, 316 (1933).

L. Silberstein and J. H. Webb, Phil. Mag. 18, 1 (1934).

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