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  1. K. S. Gibson, chairman, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I. 10, 169–241 (1925). See also report of progress committee on radiometry and photometry, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I.11, 359–361 (1925).
  2. Excluding consideration of the well-known “flicker” method of heterochromatic photometry and other methods which have been rarely used in spectrophotometry.
  3. F. F. Martens and F. Grünbaum, Über eine Neukonstruktion des Königschen Spektralphotometers, Ann. d. Physik 12, 984–1003 (1903). See also Schmidt and Haensch, Catalog II, Spektralphotometer, pp. 13–21, October, 1930.
    [Crossref]
  4. H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Standards J. Research 1, 793–857 (1928). See also K. S. Gibson, Spectrophotometry at the Bureau of Standards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 564–587 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  5. The purpose of the wedges in the collimator and telescope is to prevent passage to the eye of certain multiply reflected rays from the optical surfaces.
  6. The choice of reference standard is considered later.
  7. It was found by McNicholas that the initial polarization of the light from the tungsten-incandescent, mercury-vapor, or helium illuminants (i.e., from the MgO diffusing surfaces where beams 1 and 2 originate) is less than 1 percent. Under the symmetrical illumination from the hemispherical source there is no appreciable polarization of the light reflected at right angles from a surface having no structural regularities.
    [Crossref]
  8. I. G. Priest and et al., Color and Spectral Composition of Certain High-Intensity Searchlight Arcs, , 1920.
  9. Catalog II, pp. 13–21, October, 1930.
  10. Descriptive circular entitled, Spectrophotometers according to Koenig-Martens and Koenig-Bechstein.
  11. Advertising booklet entitled Microscopes and Other Scientific Instruments, pp. 232–245, 1929.
  12. This arrangement of optical parts in the Martens photometer is considered superior because no optical part, with reference particularly to the biprism with its inclined refracting surfaces, is placed between the wollaston and nicol prisms.
  13. entitled Optical Instruments of Recent Design.
    [Crossref]
  14. J. H. Dowell, A New Polarizing System for Spectrophotometers, J. Sci. Inst. 8, 382–384 (1931). A New Industrial and Research Spectrophotometer, J. Sci. Inst. 10, 153–156 (1933). See also Hilger Publication No. 156/3, Outfits for Absorption Spectrophotometry, pp. 26–29, 1933.
  15. Compare the formulas given above for the König-Martens spectrophotometer. The final form in either case depends, of course, on whether the beam extinguished when θ or ϕ equals zero is defined as beam 1 or 2.
  16. Section H, entitled, Spectrophotometers, Colorimeters and Apparatus for Sensitometry, p. H5, August, 1932.
    [Crossref]
  17. This is a reproduction of Fig. 1 from a paper by C. W. Keuffel, A Direct Reading Spectrophotometer, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I. 11, 403–410 (1925).
  18. For additional details the article by Keuffel should be consulted.
  19. O. Lummer and E. Brodhun, Photometrische Untersuchungen, V, Ueber ein neues Spektralphotometer, Zeits. f. Inst. 12, 132–139 (1892). See also Schmidt and HaenschCatalog II, Spektralphotometer, p. 5, October, 1930.
  20. Reference 1.
    [Crossref]
  21. E. P. Hyde, Slit-Width Corrections in Spectrophotometry and a New Form of Variable Sectored Disk, Astrophys. J. 35, 237–267 (1912).
  22. E. Brodhun, Messbare Lichtschwächung durch rotierende Prismen und ruhenden Sektor, Zeits. f. Inst. 27, 8–18 (1907). See also Schmidt and HaenschCatalog III, Rotierende Sektoren und Sektorenmesseinrichtungen, p. 4, June, 1929.
  23. Hyde’s sector design has since been incorporated in the Lummer-Brodhun spectrophotometer assembly by Schmidt and Haensch. See Catalog II, p. 6.
    [Crossref]
  24. F. L. Dunn, A Cylindrical Rotating Sector Photometer, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 807–809 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Guild, An Equipment for Visual Spectrophotometry, Trans. Opt. Soc. 26, 74–94 (1924–25).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Buckley and F. L. C. Brookes, A New Type of Visual Spectrophotometer, J. Sci. Inst. 7, 305–317 (1930).
  27. In case the transmittancy of a solution is to be measured, a cell containing the solvent is placed in the blank beam to compensate for losses by reflection and absorption of the solvent and end plates, this cell being similar in all respects to that containing the solution.
  28. Preparation and Colorimetric Properties of a Magnesium-Oxide Reflectance Standard, , December9, 1933. References to the authorities for the advantages here given may be found in the circular.
  29. Apparatus enabling such universal measurements to be made, in addition to measurements at various angles of view with completely diffused illumination, for both reflectance and transmission, either as a function of wave-length or as averaged with respect to the total luminous effect, has been constructed at the Bureau of Standards and is described in a paper by H. J. McNicholas, Bur. Standards J. Research, in press.
  30. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Compte rendu des seances, 1931, p. 23.
    [Crossref]
  31. A. C. Hardy and O. W. Pineo, The Errors due to the Finite Size of Holes and Sample in Integrating Spheres, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 502–506 (1931).
  32. M. K. Frehafer and C. L. Snow, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 56, 1925; J. F. Skogland, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 86, 1929; R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 114, Table 2, 1931.
  33. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 570, Table II (1931).
  34. See reference 20.
  35. For example, see J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58, paper No. 14, 1934.
  36. Brightness can rarely be obtained too high in spectrophotometry. Room illumination, extraneous light, etc., also affect the precision of measurement. In general, the room illumination should be low but the observer’s eyes should be totally shielded from all other light only at very low brightnesses of photometric field.

1934 (1)

For example, see J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58, paper No. 14, 1934.

1932 (1)

Section H, entitled, Spectrophotometers, Colorimeters and Apparatus for Sensitometry, p. H5, August, 1932.
[Crossref]

1931 (5)

J. H. Dowell, A New Polarizing System for Spectrophotometers, J. Sci. Inst. 8, 382–384 (1931). A New Industrial and Research Spectrophotometer, J. Sci. Inst. 10, 153–156 (1933). See also Hilger Publication No. 156/3, Outfits for Absorption Spectrophotometry, pp. 26–29, 1933.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 570, Table II (1931).

F. L. Dunn, A Cylindrical Rotating Sector Photometer, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 807–809 (1931).
[Crossref]

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Compte rendu des seances, 1931, p. 23.
[Crossref]

A. C. Hardy and O. W. Pineo, The Errors due to the Finite Size of Holes and Sample in Integrating Spheres, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 502–506 (1931).

1930 (2)

H. Buckley and F. L. C. Brookes, A New Type of Visual Spectrophotometer, J. Sci. Inst. 7, 305–317 (1930).

Catalog II, pp. 13–21, October, 1930.

1928 (1)

H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Standards J. Research 1, 793–857 (1928). See also K. S. Gibson, Spectrophotometry at the Bureau of Standards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 564–587 (1931).
[Crossref]

1925 (3)

K. S. Gibson, chairman, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I. 10, 169–241 (1925). See also report of progress committee on radiometry and photometry, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I.11, 359–361 (1925).

This is a reproduction of Fig. 1 from a paper by C. W. Keuffel, A Direct Reading Spectrophotometer, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I. 11, 403–410 (1925).

M. K. Frehafer and C. L. Snow, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 56, 1925; J. F. Skogland, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 86, 1929; R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 114, Table 2, 1931.

1912 (1)

E. P. Hyde, Slit-Width Corrections in Spectrophotometry and a New Form of Variable Sectored Disk, Astrophys. J. 35, 237–267 (1912).

1907 (1)

E. Brodhun, Messbare Lichtschwächung durch rotierende Prismen und ruhenden Sektor, Zeits. f. Inst. 27, 8–18 (1907). See also Schmidt and HaenschCatalog III, Rotierende Sektoren und Sektorenmesseinrichtungen, p. 4, June, 1929.

1903 (1)

F. F. Martens and F. Grünbaum, Über eine Neukonstruktion des Königschen Spektralphotometers, Ann. d. Physik 12, 984–1003 (1903). See also Schmidt and Haensch, Catalog II, Spektralphotometer, pp. 13–21, October, 1930.
[Crossref]

1892 (1)

O. Lummer and E. Brodhun, Photometrische Untersuchungen, V, Ueber ein neues Spektralphotometer, Zeits. f. Inst. 12, 132–139 (1892). See also Schmidt and HaenschCatalog II, Spektralphotometer, p. 5, October, 1930.

Brodhun, E.

E. Brodhun, Messbare Lichtschwächung durch rotierende Prismen und ruhenden Sektor, Zeits. f. Inst. 27, 8–18 (1907). See also Schmidt and HaenschCatalog III, Rotierende Sektoren und Sektorenmesseinrichtungen, p. 4, June, 1929.

O. Lummer and E. Brodhun, Photometrische Untersuchungen, V, Ueber ein neues Spektralphotometer, Zeits. f. Inst. 12, 132–139 (1892). See also Schmidt and HaenschCatalog II, Spektralphotometer, p. 5, October, 1930.

Brookes, F. L. C.

H. Buckley and F. L. C. Brookes, A New Type of Visual Spectrophotometer, J. Sci. Inst. 7, 305–317 (1930).

Buckley, H.

H. Buckley and F. L. C. Brookes, A New Type of Visual Spectrophotometer, J. Sci. Inst. 7, 305–317 (1930).

Dowell, J. H.

J. H. Dowell, A New Polarizing System for Spectrophotometers, J. Sci. Inst. 8, 382–384 (1931). A New Industrial and Research Spectrophotometer, J. Sci. Inst. 10, 153–156 (1933). See also Hilger Publication No. 156/3, Outfits for Absorption Spectrophotometry, pp. 26–29, 1933.

Dunn, F. L.

F. L. Dunn, A Cylindrical Rotating Sector Photometer, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 807–809 (1931).
[Crossref]

Frehafer, M. K.

M. K. Frehafer and C. L. Snow, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 56, 1925; J. F. Skogland, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 86, 1929; R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 114, Table 2, 1931.

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, chairman, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I. 10, 169–241 (1925). See also report of progress committee on radiometry and photometry, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I.11, 359–361 (1925).

Grünbaum, F.

F. F. Martens and F. Grünbaum, Über eine Neukonstruktion des Königschen Spektralphotometers, Ann. d. Physik 12, 984–1003 (1903). See also Schmidt and Haensch, Catalog II, Spektralphotometer, pp. 13–21, October, 1930.
[Crossref]

Guild, J.

J. Guild, An Equipment for Visual Spectrophotometry, Trans. Opt. Soc. 26, 74–94 (1924–25).
[Crossref]

Haensch,

Hyde’s sector design has since been incorporated in the Lummer-Brodhun spectrophotometer assembly by Schmidt and Haensch. See Catalog II, p. 6.
[Crossref]

Hardy, A. C.

Hyde, E. P.

E. P. Hyde, Slit-Width Corrections in Spectrophotometry and a New Form of Variable Sectored Disk, Astrophys. J. 35, 237–267 (1912).

Keuffel, C. W.

This is a reproduction of Fig. 1 from a paper by C. W. Keuffel, A Direct Reading Spectrophotometer, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I. 11, 403–410 (1925).

Lummer, O.

O. Lummer and E. Brodhun, Photometrische Untersuchungen, V, Ueber ein neues Spektralphotometer, Zeits. f. Inst. 12, 132–139 (1892). See also Schmidt and HaenschCatalog II, Spektralphotometer, p. 5, October, 1930.

Martens, F. F.

F. F. Martens and F. Grünbaum, Über eine Neukonstruktion des Königschen Spektralphotometers, Ann. d. Physik 12, 984–1003 (1903). See also Schmidt and Haensch, Catalog II, Spektralphotometer, pp. 13–21, October, 1930.
[Crossref]

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Standards J. Research 1, 793–857 (1928). See also K. S. Gibson, Spectrophotometry at the Bureau of Standards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 564–587 (1931).
[Crossref]

Apparatus enabling such universal measurements to be made, in addition to measurements at various angles of view with completely diffused illumination, for both reflectance and transmission, either as a function of wave-length or as averaged with respect to the total luminous effect, has been constructed at the Bureau of Standards and is described in a paper by H. J. McNicholas, Bur. Standards J. Research, in press.

Pineo, O. W.

Priest, I. G.

I. G. Priest and et al., Color and Spectral Composition of Certain High-Intensity Searchlight Arcs, , 1920.

Schmidt,

Hyde’s sector design has since been incorporated in the Lummer-Brodhun spectrophotometer assembly by Schmidt and Haensch. See Catalog II, p. 6.
[Crossref]

Snow, C. L.

M. K. Frehafer and C. L. Snow, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 56, 1925; J. F. Skogland, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 86, 1929; R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 114, Table 2, 1931.

Ann. d. Physik (1)

F. F. Martens and F. Grünbaum, Über eine Neukonstruktion des Königschen Spektralphotometers, Ann. d. Physik 12, 984–1003 (1903). See also Schmidt and Haensch, Catalog II, Spektralphotometer, pp. 13–21, October, 1930.
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (1)

E. P. Hyde, Slit-Width Corrections in Spectrophotometry and a New Form of Variable Sectored Disk, Astrophys. J. 35, 237–267 (1912).

Bur. Standards J. Research (1)

H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Standards J. Research 1, 793–857 (1928). See also K. S. Gibson, Spectrophotometry at the Bureau of Standards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 564–587 (1931).
[Crossref]

Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 56 (1)

M. K. Frehafer and C. L. Snow, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 56, 1925; J. F. Skogland, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 86, 1929; R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, Bur. Standards Misc. Pub. No. 114, Table 2, 1931.

Catalog II (1)

Catalog II, pp. 13–21, October, 1930.

Compte rendu des seances (1)

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Compte rendu des seances, 1931, p. 23.
[Crossref]

J. O. S. A. and R. S. I. (2)

K. S. Gibson, chairman, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I. 10, 169–241 (1925). See also report of progress committee on radiometry and photometry, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I.11, 359–361 (1925).

This is a reproduction of Fig. 1 from a paper by C. W. Keuffel, A Direct Reading Spectrophotometer, J. O. S. A. and R. S. I. 11, 403–410 (1925).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

A. C. Hardy and O. W. Pineo, The Errors due to the Finite Size of Holes and Sample in Integrating Spheres, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 502–506 (1931).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 570, Table II (1931).

For example, see J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 58, paper No. 14, 1934.

J. Sci. Inst. (2)

H. Buckley and F. L. C. Brookes, A New Type of Visual Spectrophotometer, J. Sci. Inst. 7, 305–317 (1930).

J. H. Dowell, A New Polarizing System for Spectrophotometers, J. Sci. Inst. 8, 382–384 (1931). A New Industrial and Research Spectrophotometer, J. Sci. Inst. 10, 153–156 (1933). See also Hilger Publication No. 156/3, Outfits for Absorption Spectrophotometry, pp. 26–29, 1933.

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

F. L. Dunn, A Cylindrical Rotating Sector Photometer, Rev. Sci. Inst. 2, 807–809 (1931).
[Crossref]

Spectrophotometers, Colorimeters and Apparatus for Sensitometry (1)

Section H, entitled, Spectrophotometers, Colorimeters and Apparatus for Sensitometry, p. H5, August, 1932.
[Crossref]

Trans. Opt. Soc. (1)

J. Guild, An Equipment for Visual Spectrophotometry, Trans. Opt. Soc. 26, 74–94 (1924–25).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. Inst. (2)

E. Brodhun, Messbare Lichtschwächung durch rotierende Prismen und ruhenden Sektor, Zeits. f. Inst. 27, 8–18 (1907). See also Schmidt and HaenschCatalog III, Rotierende Sektoren und Sektorenmesseinrichtungen, p. 4, June, 1929.

O. Lummer and E. Brodhun, Photometrische Untersuchungen, V, Ueber ein neues Spektralphotometer, Zeits. f. Inst. 12, 132–139 (1892). See also Schmidt and HaenschCatalog II, Spektralphotometer, p. 5, October, 1930.

Other (18)

Reference 1.
[Crossref]

For additional details the article by Keuffel should be consulted.

Compare the formulas given above for the König-Martens spectrophotometer. The final form in either case depends, of course, on whether the beam extinguished when θ or ϕ equals zero is defined as beam 1 or 2.

Excluding consideration of the well-known “flicker” method of heterochromatic photometry and other methods which have been rarely used in spectrophotometry.

Descriptive circular entitled, Spectrophotometers according to Koenig-Martens and Koenig-Bechstein.

Advertising booklet entitled Microscopes and Other Scientific Instruments, pp. 232–245, 1929.

This arrangement of optical parts in the Martens photometer is considered superior because no optical part, with reference particularly to the biprism with its inclined refracting surfaces, is placed between the wollaston and nicol prisms.

entitled Optical Instruments of Recent Design.
[Crossref]

The purpose of the wedges in the collimator and telescope is to prevent passage to the eye of certain multiply reflected rays from the optical surfaces.

The choice of reference standard is considered later.

It was found by McNicholas that the initial polarization of the light from the tungsten-incandescent, mercury-vapor, or helium illuminants (i.e., from the MgO diffusing surfaces where beams 1 and 2 originate) is less than 1 percent. Under the symmetrical illumination from the hemispherical source there is no appreciable polarization of the light reflected at right angles from a surface having no structural regularities.
[Crossref]

I. G. Priest and et al., Color and Spectral Composition of Certain High-Intensity Searchlight Arcs, , 1920.

Hyde’s sector design has since been incorporated in the Lummer-Brodhun spectrophotometer assembly by Schmidt and Haensch. See Catalog II, p. 6.
[Crossref]

In case the transmittancy of a solution is to be measured, a cell containing the solvent is placed in the blank beam to compensate for losses by reflection and absorption of the solvent and end plates, this cell being similar in all respects to that containing the solution.

Preparation and Colorimetric Properties of a Magnesium-Oxide Reflectance Standard, , December9, 1933. References to the authorities for the advantages here given may be found in the circular.

Apparatus enabling such universal measurements to be made, in addition to measurements at various angles of view with completely diffused illumination, for both reflectance and transmission, either as a function of wave-length or as averaged with respect to the total luminous effect, has been constructed at the Bureau of Standards and is described in a paper by H. J. McNicholas, Bur. Standards J. Research, in press.

Brightness can rarely be obtained too high in spectrophotometry. Room illumination, extraneous light, etc., also affect the precision of measurement. In general, the room illumination should be low but the observer’s eyes should be totally shielded from all other light only at very low brightnesses of photometric field.

See reference 20.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrating various forms of two-part photometric field used in spectrophotometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

König-Martens spectrophotometer, with auxiliary equipment designed at the National Bureau of Standards.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bausch and Lomb spectrophotometric equipment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gaertner polarizing spectrophotometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photometer designed by Dowell and used on the Hilger industrial and research spectrophotometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Details of sample holders designed by Dowell.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Keuffel and Esser color analyzer. 1. Spherical light source. 2. Photometer. 3. Spectrometer. 4. Wave-length scale. 5. Photometer scale. 6. Holder for standard sample. 7. Holder for reflection samples. 8. Holder for transparent samples. 9. Field of view through eye slit. 10. To vacuum ventilator. 11. Plug for vacuum ventilator. 12. 400 watt lamps. 13. Lever for raising photometer. 14. Sector disks. 15. Universal 110 volt motor. 16. Speed control rheostat. 17. Entrance slit. 18. Collimator objectives. 19. Dispersion prism. 20. Bi-prism. 21. Eye slit. 22. Cast aluminum base.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lummer-Brodhun spectrophotometer with variable rotating sector designed by Hyde.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variable rotating sector designed by Dunn.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectrophotometric equipment designed by Guild at the National Physical laboratory.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectrophotometric equipment designed by Buckley and Brookes at the National Physical Laboratory.

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = cot θ 1 tan θ 2 .
T = tan 2 θ 0 cot 2 θ 1
= cot 2 θ 0 tan 2 θ 2 .
R s / R 0 = cot θ 1 tan θ 2 .
a b X = cot θ 1 tan θ 2 ,
d 1 / d 2 = tan 2 ϕ
I 1 / I 2 = ( d 1 / d 2 ) 2 = tan 4 ϕ .
T = tan 4 ϕ 1 cot 4 ϕ 0 = cot 4 ϕ 2 tan 4 ϕ 0 = tan 2 ϕ 1 cot 2 ϕ 2 ,
E λ S d λ = k C 1 λ - 5 e - C 2 / λ θ d λ .
log ( E λ S / E λ S 1 ) = - ( C 2 / λ ) ( 1 / θ - 1 / θ 1 ) = log ( E λ V / E λ V 1 ) ,
D λ V = ( C 2 / λ ) ( 1 / θ - 1 / θ 1 )
D λ V = ( λ / λ ) D λ V .
ϕ ( θ ) = ( 1 / A ) [ F ( θ ) - K Δ 2 F ( θ ) + L Δ 4 F ( θ ) + ] ,
Δ 2 F ( θ ) = F ( θ + c ) + F ( θ - c ) - 2 F ( θ ) , Δ 4 F ( θ ) = Δ 2 F ( θ + c ) + Δ 2 F ( θ - c ) - 2 Δ 2 F ( θ ) ,
T = ϕ T ( θ ) ϕ ( θ ) = F T ( θ ) - K Δ 2 F T ( θ ) + L Δ 4 F T ( θ ) + F ( θ ) - K Δ 2 F ( θ ) + L Δ 4 F ( θ ) + ,
K = 1 / 12             and             L = 1 / 90.
T = ϕ T ( θ ) ϕ ( θ ) = F T ( θ ) - K Δ 2 F T ( θ ) F ( θ ) - K Δ 2 F ( θ ) .
Δ 2 F ( θ ) = F ( θ ) c 2 ,