Abstract

An instrument is described which measures the change in thickness of a rectangular crystal to 0.00025 of a millimeter and the change in length to approximately 0.001 of a millimeter. The instrument is designed to be used with a crystal of dimensions of 17.5×6×4 millimeters, the thickness dimension of 4 millimeters being parallel to the X axis and the length dimension being parallel to the Y axis; thus a strain as small as 0.00005 along Y and a strain as small as 0.00006 along X can be detected. The ratio of the compressional strain along Y to the extensional strain along X was found to be approximately unity over a fairly wide range of values for the strain along Y. This result is an approximate experimental verification of Voigt’s theory of the piezoelectric effect in quartz for static conditions. The device is constructed on a standard Michelson interferometer and a microscope of only medium power is necessary.

© 1934 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Y. Colby and Sidon Harris, Phys. Rev. 42, 733 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Osterberg, Phys. Rev. 43, 819 (1933).
    [Crossref]

1933 (1)

H. Osterberg, Phys. Rev. 43, 819 (1933).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

M. Y. Colby and Sidon Harris, Phys. Rev. 42, 733 (1932).
[Crossref]

Colby, M. Y.

M. Y. Colby and Sidon Harris, Phys. Rev. 42, 733 (1932).
[Crossref]

Harris, Sidon

M. Y. Colby and Sidon Harris, Phys. Rev. 42, 733 (1932).
[Crossref]

Osterberg, H.

H. Osterberg, Phys. Rev. 43, 819 (1933).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (2)

M. Y. Colby and Sidon Harris, Phys. Rev. 42, 733 (1932).
[Crossref]

H. Osterberg, Phys. Rev. 43, 819 (1933).
[Crossref]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketches showing the principle of operation of the differential interferometer, (a), side view; m and m′, small 90° mirrors with adjustable mountings; C, end view of quartz crystal to be put under compression; A, half-silvered mirror of the interferometer. (b), front view; B, compensating glass, D and E, end mirrors of interferometer; Z, extension to base of interferometer, fastened with screws 0. (c), top view; U, source of monochromatic light; T, telescope for viewing the two sets of fringes; remainder of notation similar to that given above.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The two sets of fringes as seen through the telescope. The short set being formed by reflection from the back face of the crystal and the mirror E (Fig. 1b); and the long set being formed by reflection from the front face of the crystal and the mirror D (Fig. 1b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Data on X-cut quartz crystal; length (parallel to Y axis)=17.5 mm; thickness (parallel to X axis)=4 mm; breadth (parallel to optic axis)=6 mm. One division of eyepiece=0.005 mm.