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  1. P. G. Nutting, A New Method and Instrument for Determining the Reflecting Power of Opaque Bodies, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 7, 412 (1912).
  2. A. H. Taylor, Measurement of Diffuse Reflection Factors and a New Absolute Reflectometer, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 16, 421 (1920).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. H. Taylor, A Simple Portable Instrument for Measuring Reflection and Transmission Factors in Absolute Units, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 15, 811 (1920).
  4. A. H. Taylor, A Simple Portable Instrument for the Measurement of Reflection and Transmission Factors, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 17, 1 (1922).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. H. Little and C. H. Sharp, Measurement of Reflection Factors, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 15, 802 (1920).
  6. Frank Benford, An Absolute Method for Determining Coefficients of Diffuse Reflection, Gen. Elec. Rev. 23, 72 (1920).
  7. Enoch Karrer, Use of the Ulbricht Sphere in Measuring Reflection and Transmission Factors, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 17, 415 (1922).

1922 (2)

A. H. Taylor, A Simple Portable Instrument for the Measurement of Reflection and Transmission Factors, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 17, 1 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Enoch Karrer, Use of the Ulbricht Sphere in Measuring Reflection and Transmission Factors, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 17, 415 (1922).

1920 (4)

W. H. Little and C. H. Sharp, Measurement of Reflection Factors, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 15, 802 (1920).

Frank Benford, An Absolute Method for Determining Coefficients of Diffuse Reflection, Gen. Elec. Rev. 23, 72 (1920).

A. H. Taylor, Measurement of Diffuse Reflection Factors and a New Absolute Reflectometer, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 16, 421 (1920).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Taylor, A Simple Portable Instrument for Measuring Reflection and Transmission Factors in Absolute Units, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 15, 811 (1920).

1912 (1)

P. G. Nutting, A New Method and Instrument for Determining the Reflecting Power of Opaque Bodies, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 7, 412 (1912).

Benford, Frank

Frank Benford, An Absolute Method for Determining Coefficients of Diffuse Reflection, Gen. Elec. Rev. 23, 72 (1920).

Karrer, Enoch

Enoch Karrer, Use of the Ulbricht Sphere in Measuring Reflection and Transmission Factors, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 17, 415 (1922).

Little, W. H.

W. H. Little and C. H. Sharp, Measurement of Reflection Factors, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 15, 802 (1920).

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, A New Method and Instrument for Determining the Reflecting Power of Opaque Bodies, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 7, 412 (1912).

Sharp, C. H.

W. H. Little and C. H. Sharp, Measurement of Reflection Factors, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 15, 802 (1920).

Taylor, A. H.

A. H. Taylor, A Simple Portable Instrument for the Measurement of Reflection and Transmission Factors, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 17, 1 (1922).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Taylor, Measurement of Diffuse Reflection Factors and a New Absolute Reflectometer, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 16, 421 (1920).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Taylor, A Simple Portable Instrument for Measuring Reflection and Transmission Factors in Absolute Units, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 15, 811 (1920).

Gen. Elec. Rev. (1)

Frank Benford, An Absolute Method for Determining Coefficients of Diffuse Reflection, Gen. Elec. Rev. 23, 72 (1920).

Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards (3)

Enoch Karrer, Use of the Ulbricht Sphere in Measuring Reflection and Transmission Factors, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 17, 415 (1922).

A. H. Taylor, Measurement of Diffuse Reflection Factors and a New Absolute Reflectometer, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 16, 421 (1920).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Taylor, A Simple Portable Instrument for the Measurement of Reflection and Transmission Factors, Sci. Papers, Bur. of Standards 17, 1 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. (3)

W. H. Little and C. H. Sharp, Measurement of Reflection Factors, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 15, 802 (1920).

A. H. Taylor, A Simple Portable Instrument for Measuring Reflection and Transmission Factors in Absolute Units, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 15, 811 (1920).

P. G. Nutting, A New Method and Instrument for Determining the Reflecting Power of Opaque Bodies, Trans. Ill. Eng. Soc. 7, 412 (1912).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The factor by which changes in the coefficient of the aperture are multiplied in the photometer reading is a function of a and x as illustrated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

These two arrangements of the instrument give a photometric sensitivity that is always greater than unity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

This construction of the reflectometer gives a sensitivity that is always greater than 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The reflectometer attached to a direct vision photometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bottom of reflectometer showing adjustable lamp housing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The angular position of the zone of average sphere illumination by a radiating point in the center of the aperture is given by the curve for various sizes of apertures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The material and density of the aperture plate influence the photometric sensitivity of Figs. 1, 2 and 3 by the factors given above, and the sensitivity of the complete reflectometer is as shown in Fig. 14.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Three experimental reflectometers having angular apertures of 60 deg., 90 deg., and 120 deg., and values of a equal to 0.0670, 0.1465 and 0.2500, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Three calibration standards having coefficients of 0.98, 0.06 and zero.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The aperture plate has three-quarters of its area covered with black paper and with the magnesium carbonate block over the remaining quarter the test coefficient will be 0.29.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The manner in which the surface of glass reflects unpolarized light at various angles of incidence is given by curve A.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The manner in which the average coefficient of reflection of a glass surface changes with the cone of illumination has an important bearing on all tests of surfaces having specular characteristics.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The degree of agreement between the tests on diffusing surfaces (dots) and mirrors (circles) is taken as the criterion of the reflectometer design.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The sensitivity of the complete reflectometer is given by the curve, which was computed from the given values of a, s, m, r and p substituted in Eqs. (5), (14) and (15).

Equations (17)

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k = ( P 5 - P 4 ) / ( 5 6 P 5 - 4 6 P 4 ) .
F 1 = F 0 m [ m s 1 - m s + a m x ( 1 - m s ) 2 + a 2 m 2 x 2 ( 1 - m s ) 3 + a 3 m 3 x 3 ( 1 - m s ) 4 + ] = F 0 m 2 ( s + a x ) 1 - m s - a m x
f 1 = F 0 a m x / ( 1 - m s - a m x ) .
S = ( x / F ) ( d F / d x )
S 1 = a x / [ ( s + a x ) ( 1 - m s - a m x ) ] .
S 2 = 1 + a m x / ( 1 - m s - a m x )
F 3 = F 0 m x / ( 1 - m s - a m x )
S 2 = 1 + a m x / ( 1 - m x - a m x ) ,
f 4 = F 0 a m x 2 / ( 1 - m s - a m x ) .
S 4 = 2 + a m x / ( 1 - m s - a m x ) .
E β = ( Q - R cos β ) ( R - Q cos β ) ( R 2 + Q 2 - 2 R Q cos β ) 2 ,
E = π / 4 π R 2 s = 1 / 4 R 2 s .
r + p + a = 1
x = r + p 2 k + p 2 k 2 r + p 2 k 3 r 2 + = r + p 2 k / ( 1 - k r ) .
S = k d x / x d k = k p 2 / [ ( r - k r 2 + p 2 k ) ( 1 - k r ) ]
S = S S = k d L / L d k .
K = 1 + 0.134 t + 1.66 t 2 .