Abstract

In the field of photographic research there appear many puzzling phenomena which in themselves are of interest only as curiosities except insofar as the information which they may yield upon careful investigation leads to a more complete and precise understanding of the fundamental photographic reactions involved in the formation of a latent photographic image and its subsequent development. The action of red polarized light upon certain non-optically sensitized photographic emulsions produces an image which is characterized by polarization and is, in certain cases, photo-adapted so that it appears to be the color of the light by which it was produced. An investigation of this phenomenon in its simplest form was undertaken by the authors in an effort to relate it if possible to accepted photographic theory and to arrive at an explanation which would be more satisfactory than those previously proposed.

© 1934 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Weigert, Verh. dtsch. physik. Ges. 21, 479 (1919).
  2. F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B3, 389 (1929).
  3. For a summary and bibliography of Weigert’s publications dealing with photo-anisotropy the reader is referred to: F. Weigert and J. Matulis, Kollch. Beihefte 38, 384–412 (1933).
  4. F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B18, 73 (1932).
  5. Ed. Becquerel, La Lumiére, Paris, Didot Fréres, Fils et Cie., p. 176, 1867.
  6. T. Kondo, Zeits. f. wiss. Photogr., Photophysik, Photochemie 31, 153 (1932).
  7. Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 77, 421 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  8. Coton, Comptes rendus 189, 599 (1929).
  9. F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B18, 73 (1932).
  10. Brian O’Brien, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., Feb.10, 1932; J. O. S. A. 22, 427A (1932).
  11. Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 44, 28 (1897).
    [Crossref]
  12. Abraham, Weid. Ann. 66, 435 (1898).
    [Crossref]
  13. Thomson, Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism.
  14. Love, Proc. London Math. Soc. 1, 37 (1903).
  15. Wood, Phil. Mag.3, 396; Phil. Mag. 4, 425 (1902); Phil. Mag. 6, 259 (1903).
    [Crossref]
  16. Braun, Ann. d. Physik 16, 1 (1905).
    [Crossref]
  17. Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 615 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. E. Sheppard and A. P. H. Trivelli, Phot. J. 61, 403 (1921).
  19. Fajans, Chem. Ztg. 45, 666 (1921). Zeits. f. Electrochemie 28, 299 (1932).
  20. Fajans and Frankenburger, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 105, 253 (1923).
  21. A. P. H. Trivelli and S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 63, 334 (1923).
  22. S. E. Sheppard, J. Frank. Inst. 210, 587 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Tollert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 140, 355 (1929).
  24. Vanslow and Sheppard, J. Phys. Chem. 33, 331 (1929); Sheppard, Vanslow, and Hall, ibid. 33, 1403 (1929); Toy and Harrison, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A127, 631 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  25. Sheppard, Wightman, and Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  26. Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 606 (1930).
    [Crossref]

1934 (1)

Sheppard, Wightman, and Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).
[Crossref]

1933 (1)

For a summary and bibliography of Weigert’s publications dealing with photo-anisotropy the reader is referred to: F. Weigert and J. Matulis, Kollch. Beihefte 38, 384–412 (1933).

1932 (5)

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B18, 73 (1932).

T. Kondo, Zeits. f. wiss. Photogr., Photophysik, Photochemie 31, 153 (1932).

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 77, 421 (1932).
[Crossref]

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B18, 73 (1932).

Brian O’Brien, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., Feb.10, 1932; J. O. S. A. 22, 427A (1932).

1930 (3)

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 615 (1930).
[Crossref]

S. E. Sheppard, J. Frank. Inst. 210, 587 (1930).
[Crossref]

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 606 (1930).
[Crossref]

1929 (4)

H. Tollert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 140, 355 (1929).

Vanslow and Sheppard, J. Phys. Chem. 33, 331 (1929); Sheppard, Vanslow, and Hall, ibid. 33, 1403 (1929); Toy and Harrison, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A127, 631 (1930).
[Crossref]

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B3, 389 (1929).

Coton, Comptes rendus 189, 599 (1929).

1923 (2)

Fajans and Frankenburger, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 105, 253 (1923).

A. P. H. Trivelli and S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 63, 334 (1923).

1921 (2)

S. E. Sheppard and A. P. H. Trivelli, Phot. J. 61, 403 (1921).

Fajans, Chem. Ztg. 45, 666 (1921). Zeits. f. Electrochemie 28, 299 (1932).

1919 (1)

F. Weigert, Verh. dtsch. physik. Ges. 21, 479 (1919).

1905 (1)

Braun, Ann. d. Physik 16, 1 (1905).
[Crossref]

1903 (1)

Love, Proc. London Math. Soc. 1, 37 (1903).

1898 (1)

Abraham, Weid. Ann. 66, 435 (1898).
[Crossref]

1897 (1)

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 44, 28 (1897).
[Crossref]

Abraham,

Abraham, Weid. Ann. 66, 435 (1898).
[Crossref]

Becquerel, Ed.

Ed. Becquerel, La Lumiére, Paris, Didot Fréres, Fils et Cie., p. 176, 1867.

Braun,

Braun, Ann. d. Physik 16, 1 (1905).
[Crossref]

Coton,

Coton, Comptes rendus 189, 599 (1929).

Fajans,

Fajans and Frankenburger, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 105, 253 (1923).

Fajans, Chem. Ztg. 45, 666 (1921). Zeits. f. Electrochemie 28, 299 (1932).

Frankenburger,

Fajans and Frankenburger, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 105, 253 (1923).

Hilsch,

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 77, 421 (1932).
[Crossref]

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 615 (1930).
[Crossref]

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 606 (1930).
[Crossref]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, Zeits. f. wiss. Photogr., Photophysik, Photochemie 31, 153 (1932).

Love,

Love, Proc. London Math. Soc. 1, 37 (1903).

Matulis, J.

For a summary and bibliography of Weigert’s publications dealing with photo-anisotropy the reader is referred to: F. Weigert and J. Matulis, Kollch. Beihefte 38, 384–412 (1933).

O’Brien, Brian

Brian O’Brien, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., Feb.10, 1932; J. O. S. A. 22, 427A (1932).

Pohl,

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 77, 421 (1932).
[Crossref]

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 606 (1930).
[Crossref]

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 615 (1930).
[Crossref]

Quirk,

Sheppard, Wightman, and Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).
[Crossref]

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 44, 28 (1897).
[Crossref]

Sheppard,

Sheppard, Wightman, and Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).
[Crossref]

Vanslow and Sheppard, J. Phys. Chem. 33, 331 (1929); Sheppard, Vanslow, and Hall, ibid. 33, 1403 (1929); Toy and Harrison, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A127, 631 (1930).
[Crossref]

Sheppard, S. E.

S. E. Sheppard, J. Frank. Inst. 210, 587 (1930).
[Crossref]

A. P. H. Trivelli and S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 63, 334 (1923).

S. E. Sheppard and A. P. H. Trivelli, Phot. J. 61, 403 (1921).

Thomson,

Thomson, Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism.

Tollert, H.

H. Tollert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 140, 355 (1929).

Trivelli, A. P. H.

A. P. H. Trivelli and S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 63, 334 (1923).

S. E. Sheppard and A. P. H. Trivelli, Phot. J. 61, 403 (1921).

Vanslow,

Vanslow and Sheppard, J. Phys. Chem. 33, 331 (1929); Sheppard, Vanslow, and Hall, ibid. 33, 1403 (1929); Toy and Harrison, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A127, 631 (1930).
[Crossref]

Weigert, F.

For a summary and bibliography of Weigert’s publications dealing with photo-anisotropy the reader is referred to: F. Weigert and J. Matulis, Kollch. Beihefte 38, 384–412 (1933).

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B18, 73 (1932).

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B18, 73 (1932).

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B3, 389 (1929).

F. Weigert, Verh. dtsch. physik. Ges. 21, 479 (1919).

Wightman,

Sheppard, Wightman, and Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).
[Crossref]

Wood,

Wood, Phil. Mag.3, 396; Phil. Mag. 4, 425 (1902); Phil. Mag. 6, 259 (1903).
[Crossref]

Ann. d. Physik (1)

Braun, Ann. d. Physik 16, 1 (1905).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

Brian O’Brien, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., Feb.10, 1932; J. O. S. A. 22, 427A (1932).

Chem. Ztg. (1)

Fajans, Chem. Ztg. 45, 666 (1921). Zeits. f. Electrochemie 28, 299 (1932).

Comptes rendus (1)

Coton, Comptes rendus 189, 599 (1929).

J. Frank. Inst. (1)

S. E. Sheppard, J. Frank. Inst. 210, 587 (1930).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

Vanslow and Sheppard, J. Phys. Chem. 33, 331 (1929); Sheppard, Vanslow, and Hall, ibid. 33, 1403 (1929); Toy and Harrison, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A127, 631 (1930).
[Crossref]

Sheppard, Wightman, and Quirk, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 817 (1934).
[Crossref]

Kollch. Beihefte (1)

For a summary and bibliography of Weigert’s publications dealing with photo-anisotropy the reader is referred to: F. Weigert and J. Matulis, Kollch. Beihefte 38, 384–412 (1933).

Phil. Mag. (1)

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 44, 28 (1897).
[Crossref]

Phot. J. (2)

S. E. Sheppard and A. P. H. Trivelli, Phot. J. 61, 403 (1921).

A. P. H. Trivelli and S. E. Sheppard, Phot. J. 63, 334 (1923).

Proc. London Math. Soc. (1)

Love, Proc. London Math. Soc. 1, 37 (1903).

Verh. dtsch. physik. Ges. (1)

F. Weigert, Verh. dtsch. physik. Ges. 21, 479 (1919).

Weid. Ann. (1)

Abraham, Weid. Ann. 66, 435 (1898).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. Physik (3)

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 615 (1930).
[Crossref]

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 77, 421 (1932).
[Crossref]

Hilsch and Pohl, Zeits. f. Physik 64, 606 (1930).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. physik. Chemie (5)

H. Tollert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 140, 355 (1929).

Fajans and Frankenburger, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie 105, 253 (1923).

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B18, 73 (1932).

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B3, 389 (1929).

F. Weigert, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie B18, 73 (1932).

Zeits. f. wiss. Photogr., Photophysik, Photochemie (1)

T. Kondo, Zeits. f. wiss. Photogr., Photophysik, Photochemie 31, 153 (1932).

Other (3)

Ed. Becquerel, La Lumiére, Paris, Didot Fréres, Fils et Cie., p. 176, 1867.

Wood, Phil. Mag.3, 396; Phil. Mag. 4, 425 (1902); Phil. Mag. 6, 259 (1903).
[Crossref]

Thomson, Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Appearance of dichrometric fields.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dichroism and birefringence of unfixed photo-chloride plate as a function of exposure time and wavelength of measuring light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Circles, absorption curve of unexposed Ilford lantern plate; triangles, absorption after ultraviolet exposure; squares, absorption after exposure to red light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

True absorption of ultraviolet exposed plate, aS and of red exposed ap. The difference between these gives the dichroism curve, a3ap.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical Lorentz equation for absorption and refractive index. (After Försterling, Lehrbuch der Optik, p. 86.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two absorption curves (dotted) giving rise to a dichroism curve and two corresponding refractive index curves giving a birefringence curve by difference.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption curves of plates after fixing. Open circles, ultraviolet exposed plate. Solid circles, absorption of red exposed area.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dichroism and birefringence of fixed photo-chloride plate as a function of exposure time and wavelength of measuring light.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dichroism of fixed image wet and dry showing shift of curves toward ultraviolet.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Free silver in mg/100 Cm2.