Abstract

Films were sputtered on glass from circular tin cathodes. These films, when produced in air or oxygen and viewed with monochromatic light, show alternately light and dark rings; in white light they show several cycles of the colors of the visible continuous spectrum, similar in appearance to Newton’s rings. In the formation of a set of rings the center gradually passes through a cycle of colors of increasing wave-length to the red. The red center then merges into blue and the cycle is repeated. With the appearance of each new center color, all preceding colors move outward and form surrounding rings. The rate of growth of a set of rings depends on the sputtering conditions. Under proper conditions, the change of color of the center and the addition of another set of color rings takes place with definite regularity. These colors are believed to be due to an interference effect produced by the variation in thickness of the film layer. This layer is probably stannic oxide. Films produced in nitrogen are opaque brown deposits. Tests indicate the material of these films to be a tin-nitrogen compound. Heating such a film in oxygen produced a nearly transparent color film similar to those sputtered in oxygen or air. Films produced in hydrogen have mirror surfaces of high reflecting power.

© 1933 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Bockstahler and Overbeck, Phys. Rev. 37, 465 (1931).
  2. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 38, 98 (1919).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Fritze, Ann. d. Physik 47, 763 (1915). H. W. Edwards, Phys. Rev. 33, 463 (1929).
    [Crossref]
  4. Ingersoll and DeVinney, Phys. Rev. 26, 86 (1925).
    [Crossref]
  5. Dreisch and Rütten, Zeits. f. Physik 60, 69 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. W. Edwards, Phys. Rev. 38, 166 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. W. Bridgman, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 60, (6) 308 (1925).
  8. E. Blechschmidt, Ann. d. Physik 81, 999 (1926).
    [Crossref]
  9. Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol.  VIII, p. 97. “Usually the nitride is decomposed by steam giving off ammonia….” “When the nitrides are oxidized, free nitrogen is evolved and an oxide of the metal is formed.”
  10. Ephriam, Inorganic Chemistry, 1926, p. 529.
  11. Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol.  VIII, p. 122. “H. Fischer and coworkers prepared an impure tin nitride….” The method used was to spark tin electrodes in liquid nitrogen.
  12. Schimpf, Manual of Volumetric Analysis.
  13. F. W. Bergstrom, J. Phys. Chem. 32, 439 (1928).
  14. Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise of Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol. VIII, p. 296.

1931 (2)

Bockstahler and Overbeck, Phys. Rev. 37, 465 (1931).

H. W. Edwards, Phys. Rev. 38, 166 (1931).
[Crossref]

1930 (1)

Dreisch and Rütten, Zeits. f. Physik 60, 69 (1930).
[Crossref]

1928 (1)

F. W. Bergstrom, J. Phys. Chem. 32, 439 (1928).

1926 (2)

E. Blechschmidt, Ann. d. Physik 81, 999 (1926).
[Crossref]

Ephriam, Inorganic Chemistry, 1926, p. 529.

1925 (2)

P. W. Bridgman, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 60, (6) 308 (1925).

Ingersoll and DeVinney, Phys. Rev. 26, 86 (1925).
[Crossref]

1919 (1)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 38, 98 (1919).
[Crossref]

1915 (1)

H. Fritze, Ann. d. Physik 47, 763 (1915). H. W. Edwards, Phys. Rev. 33, 463 (1929).
[Crossref]

Bergstrom, F. W.

F. W. Bergstrom, J. Phys. Chem. 32, 439 (1928).

Blechschmidt, E.

E. Blechschmidt, Ann. d. Physik 81, 999 (1926).
[Crossref]

Bockstahler,

Bockstahler and Overbeck, Phys. Rev. 37, 465 (1931).

Bridgman, P. W.

P. W. Bridgman, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 60, (6) 308 (1925).

DeVinney,

Ingersoll and DeVinney, Phys. Rev. 26, 86 (1925).
[Crossref]

Dreisch,

Dreisch and Rütten, Zeits. f. Physik 60, 69 (1930).
[Crossref]

Edwards, H. W.

H. W. Edwards, Phys. Rev. 38, 166 (1931).
[Crossref]

Ephriam,

Ephriam, Inorganic Chemistry, 1926, p. 529.

Fritze, H.

H. Fritze, Ann. d. Physik 47, 763 (1915). H. W. Edwards, Phys. Rev. 33, 463 (1929).
[Crossref]

Ingersoll,

Ingersoll and DeVinney, Phys. Rev. 26, 86 (1925).
[Crossref]

Mellor,

Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol.  VIII, p. 122. “H. Fischer and coworkers prepared an impure tin nitride….” The method used was to spark tin electrodes in liquid nitrogen.

Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol.  VIII, p. 97. “Usually the nitride is decomposed by steam giving off ammonia….” “When the nitrides are oxidized, free nitrogen is evolved and an oxide of the metal is formed.”

Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise of Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol. VIII, p. 296.

Overbeck,

Bockstahler and Overbeck, Phys. Rev. 37, 465 (1931).

Rütten,

Dreisch and Rütten, Zeits. f. Physik 60, 69 (1930).
[Crossref]

Schimpf,

Schimpf, Manual of Volumetric Analysis.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 38, 98 (1919).
[Crossref]

A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry (2)

Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol.  VIII, p. 97. “Usually the nitride is decomposed by steam giving off ammonia….” “When the nitrides are oxidized, free nitrogen is evolved and an oxide of the metal is formed.”

Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol.  VIII, p. 122. “H. Fischer and coworkers prepared an impure tin nitride….” The method used was to spark tin electrodes in liquid nitrogen.

Ann. d. Physik (2)

E. Blechschmidt, Ann. d. Physik 81, 999 (1926).
[Crossref]

H. Fritze, Ann. d. Physik 47, 763 (1915). H. W. Edwards, Phys. Rev. 33, 463 (1929).
[Crossref]

Inorganic Chemistry (1)

Ephriam, Inorganic Chemistry, 1926, p. 529.

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

F. W. Bergstrom, J. Phys. Chem. 32, 439 (1928).

Phil. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 38, 98 (1919).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (3)

Bockstahler and Overbeck, Phys. Rev. 37, 465 (1931).

Ingersoll and DeVinney, Phys. Rev. 26, 86 (1925).
[Crossref]

H. W. Edwards, Phys. Rev. 38, 166 (1931).
[Crossref]

Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. (1)

P. W. Bridgman, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 60, (6) 308 (1925).

Zeits. f. Physik (1)

Dreisch and Rütten, Zeits. f. Physik 60, 69 (1930).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise of Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol. VIII, p. 296.

Schimpf, Manual of Volumetric Analysis.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rate of growth of color cycles in dry air.

Tables (2)