Abstract

Thermocouple measurements have been made at four different altitudes in the neighborhood of Albuquerque, New Mexico, of the intensity of solar radiation transmitted by a silver filter. These have been used to determine values of the transmission coefficient defined by I=Iam where I and I0 are respectively the observed and incident energies, a the transmission coefficient and m the air mass traversed in units of the vertical air path directly overhead at sea level and normal pressure. The results, corrected by the use of Hann’s empirical equation for the effect of water in the path, gave for a at 3140 m, 0.47; at 2059 m, 0.47; at 1769 m, 0.46; and at 1556 m, 0.43. The last result, from observations on the New Mexico campus is low probably because of dust scattering; the others are in agreement within the errors. The theoretical value calculated from Rayleigh’s law of molecular scattering, and using a new value (λ3240) for the wave length of maximum solar energy transmitted by a silver film, is 0.479. The conclusion is, that at least above 1700 m altitude, and for clean dry air, the Rayleigh law for pure molecular scattering is adequate to account for the atmospheric depletion of solar radiation in the silver transmission band. The somewhat discordant results of earlier investigators are discussed.

© 1932 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  13. Kimball, Monthly Weather Review 55, p. 155; 1927.
    [Crossref]

1931 (1)

Götz and Ladenburg, Naturwiss. 18, 373; 1931.
[Crossref]

1929 (3)

Dawson, Granath, and Hulbert, Phys. Rev. 34, 136; 1929.
[Crossref]

Forsythe and Christison, G. E. Rev.,  32, p. 662, 1929.

Birge, Phys. Rev. Sup. 1, p. 1; 1929.

1927 (2)

Kimball, Monthly Weather Review 55, p. 155; 1927.
[Crossref]

Pettit, Nat. Research Council Bull., No.  61, 101; 1927.

1921 (2)

Schaeffer, Proc. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sci. 57, 385; 1921.

Fabry and Buisson, Astrophys. J.,  54, 297; 1921.
[Crossref]

1915 (1)

Hann, Lehrbuch der Meteorologie, p. 230; 1915.

1913 (1)

Fowle, Astrophys. J.,  38, 392; 1913.
[Crossref]

1902 (1)

Hagen and Rubens. Ann. d. Physik,  8, p. 432; 1902.
[Crossref]

1899 (1)

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag.,  47, 375; 1899.

Birge,

Birge, Phys. Rev. Sup. 1, p. 1; 1929.

Buisson,

Fabry and Buisson, Astrophys. J.,  54, 297; 1921.
[Crossref]

Christison,

Forsythe and Christison, G. E. Rev.,  32, p. 662, 1929.

Dawson,

Dawson, Granath, and Hulbert, Phys. Rev. 34, 136; 1929.
[Crossref]

Fabry,

Fabry and Buisson, Astrophys. J.,  54, 297; 1921.
[Crossref]

Forsythe,

Forsythe and Christison, G. E. Rev.,  32, p. 662, 1929.

Fowle,

Fowle, Astrophys. J.,  38, 392; 1913.
[Crossref]

Götz,

Götz and Ladenburg, Naturwiss. 18, 373; 1931.
[Crossref]

Granath,

Dawson, Granath, and Hulbert, Phys. Rev. 34, 136; 1929.
[Crossref]

Hagen,

Hagen and Rubens. Ann. d. Physik,  8, p. 432; 1902.
[Crossref]

Hann,

Hann, Lehrbuch der Meteorologie, p. 230; 1915.

Hulbert,

Dawson, Granath, and Hulbert, Phys. Rev. 34, 136; 1929.
[Crossref]

Kimball,

Kimball, Monthly Weather Review 55, p. 155; 1927.
[Crossref]

Ladenburg,

Götz and Ladenburg, Naturwiss. 18, 373; 1931.
[Crossref]

Pettit,

Pettit, Nat. Research Council Bull., No.  61, 101; 1927.

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag.,  47, 375; 1899.

Rubens,

Hagen and Rubens. Ann. d. Physik,  8, p. 432; 1902.
[Crossref]

Schaeffer,

Schaeffer, Proc. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sci. 57, 385; 1921.

Ann. d. Physik (1)

Hagen and Rubens. Ann. d. Physik,  8, p. 432; 1902.
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (2)

Fowle, Astrophys. J.,  38, 392; 1913.
[Crossref]

Fabry and Buisson, Astrophys. J.,  54, 297; 1921.
[Crossref]

G. E. Rev. (1)

Forsythe and Christison, G. E. Rev.,  32, p. 662, 1929.

Lehrbuch der Meteorologie (1)

Hann, Lehrbuch der Meteorologie, p. 230; 1915.

Monthly Weather Review (1)

Kimball, Monthly Weather Review 55, p. 155; 1927.
[Crossref]

Nat. Research Council Bull. (1)

Pettit, Nat. Research Council Bull., No.  61, 101; 1927.

Naturwiss. (1)

Götz and Ladenburg, Naturwiss. 18, 373; 1931.
[Crossref]

Phil. Mag. (1)

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag.,  47, 375; 1899.

Phys. Rev. (1)

Dawson, Granath, and Hulbert, Phys. Rev. 34, 136; 1929.
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Sup. (1)

Birge, Phys. Rev. Sup. 1, p. 1; 1929.

Proc. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sci. (1)

Schaeffer, Proc. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sci. 57, 385; 1921.

Other (1)

Smithsonian Physical Tables, 7th edition, p. 293; (1923).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of receiver: A, silvered Corex filter; B, quartz lens; C, silvered quartz plate; D, thermocouple; E, Dewar flask; F, hard rubber case.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity-air mass curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmissibility of radiation trough moist air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum solar energy transmitted by silver near 3200. A, solar energy curve; B, transmission curve for silver; C, transmitted energy.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Observations and reduced data for October 17, 1931. Elevation 1556 m, University of New Mexico Campus.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results in comparison. Rayleigh scattering by unit air mass.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 0 e - k x
I = I 0 a m
m = ( B / B 0 ) sec ϕ .
sin h = sin B sin θ + cos B cos θ cos α
log I = log I 0 + m log a .
a = a a · a w q .
Q 1 = 2.3 e 0 ( 1 - 10 - h / 5000 )
Q 2 = 2.3 e 0 .
Q = Q 2 - Q 1 = 2.3 e 0 - 2.3 e 0 ( 1 - 10 - 1556 / 5000 ) Q = 1.17 e 0 .
e w = e 0 10 - 1556 / 6500 e 0 = 1.73 e w .
Q = 1.93 e w .