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  1. , J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 10, pp. 169–241; February, 1925.K. S. Gibson, The Use of the Photoelectric Cell in Spectrophotometry, published in “ Photoelectric Cells and Their Applications,” pp. 157–173; June, 1930, by the Physical and Optical Societies, London.
  2. H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Stand. Jour. Research,  1 (RP 30), pp. 793–857; November, 1928.
    [Crossref]
  3. These will tend to be most serious where the spectrophotometric curves show the greatest curvature, being determined mainly from the second derivatives of the luminosity curves resulting from (1) the energy distribution of the source, (2) the dispersion of the prism, (3) the visibility function, and (4) the spectral transmission or reflection of the sample. There are many kinds of work where the error may be negligible. Experimentally, such errors may be greatly reduced by the use of narrow slits. The slit widths which it is safe to use without making corrections to the results depend on the selectivity of the sample and the use of the results.
  4. RP 30, pp. 848–850. Priest, McNicholas, and Frehafer, Some Tests of the Precision and Reliability of Measurements of Spectral Transmission by the Koenig-Martens Spectrophotometer, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I.,  8, pp. 201–212; January, 1924.
    [Crossref]
  5. H. J. McNicholas, Absolute Methods in Reflectometry, Bur. Stand. Jour. Res.,  1 (RP 3), pp. 29–73; July, 1928.
    [Crossref]
  6. Initiated by Irwin G. Priest See article by him, The Work of the National Bureau of Standards on The Establishment of Color Standards and Methods of Color Specification, Trans. I.E.S.,  13, pp. 38–19; Feb., 1918.
  7. K. S. Gibson, Photoelectric Spectrophotometry by the Null Method, , October, 1919. In 1923 this method was superseded by an equal-deflections method, as described below.
  8. ;.
  9. .
  10. .
  11. K. S. Gibson, Direct-reading Photoelectric Measurement of Spectral Transmission, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I.,  7, pp. 693–704; 1923.
    [Crossref]
  12. J.O.S.A. and R.S.I.,  9, pp. 113–121; 1924., 1927., 1931.
    [Crossref]
  13. Gibson, Tyndall, McNicholas, Frehafer, and Mathewson, The Spectral Transmissive Properties of Dyes, , pp. 128–134; 1922.H. J. McNicholas, Use of the Underwater Spark with the Hilger Sector Photometer in Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, B. S. Jour. Res.,  1, (RP 33) pp. 939–949; December, 1928.
  14. On the Bureau apparatus both sectors are made adjustable and the usual procedure is to take the second half of the plate with the solution and solvent interchanged. In this position the same exposures are made as on the first half of the plate but in reverse order. Averaging the corresponding pairs of readings tends to eliminate errors resulting from imperfect match of the comparison spectra.
  15. Phys. Rev.,  8, pp. 674–688; 1916.
    [Crossref]
  16. , pp. 131–133; 1922.
  17. Roy. Soc. Proc.,  113, pp. 709–716; 1927.
    [Crossref]
  18. Advertising notices, 1928.
  19. ; 1920.; 1922. Brode, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,  46, pp. 2032–2043; 1924;J. Am. Chem. Soc. 48, pp. 1877–1882, 1984–1988, 2193–2206; 1926.J. Phys. Chem.,  30, pp. 56–69; 1926.; 1929.
    [Crossref]
  20. Energieverteilung im kontinuierlichen spektrum des Aluminium-Unterwasserfunkens, Ann. der Physik,  391, pp. 1071–1088; 1928.
    [Crossref]
  21. An Interlaboratory Comparison of Colored Photometric Filters, Trans. I.E.S.,  24, pp. 153–197; Feb., 1929. The above graph is given on page 198 of the discussion following the paper.

1929 (1)

An Interlaboratory Comparison of Colored Photometric Filters, Trans. I.E.S.,  24, pp. 153–197; Feb., 1929. The above graph is given on page 198 of the discussion following the paper.

1928 (3)

Energieverteilung im kontinuierlichen spektrum des Aluminium-Unterwasserfunkens, Ann. der Physik,  391, pp. 1071–1088; 1928.
[Crossref]

H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Stand. Jour. Research,  1 (RP 30), pp. 793–857; November, 1928.
[Crossref]

H. J. McNicholas, Absolute Methods in Reflectometry, Bur. Stand. Jour. Res.,  1 (RP 3), pp. 29–73; July, 1928.
[Crossref]

1927 (1)

Roy. Soc. Proc.,  113, pp. 709–716; 1927.
[Crossref]

1924 (1)

J.O.S.A. and R.S.I.,  9, pp. 113–121; 1924., 1927., 1931.
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

K. S. Gibson, Direct-reading Photoelectric Measurement of Spectral Transmission, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I.,  7, pp. 693–704; 1923.
[Crossref]

1916 (1)

Phys. Rev.,  8, pp. 674–688; 1916.
[Crossref]

Frehafer,

Gibson, Tyndall, McNicholas, Frehafer, and Mathewson, The Spectral Transmissive Properties of Dyes, , pp. 128–134; 1922.H. J. McNicholas, Use of the Underwater Spark with the Hilger Sector Photometer in Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, B. S. Jour. Res.,  1, (RP 33) pp. 939–949; December, 1928.

Gibson,

Gibson, Tyndall, McNicholas, Frehafer, and Mathewson, The Spectral Transmissive Properties of Dyes, , pp. 128–134; 1922.H. J. McNicholas, Use of the Underwater Spark with the Hilger Sector Photometer in Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, B. S. Jour. Res.,  1, (RP 33) pp. 939–949; December, 1928.

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, Direct-reading Photoelectric Measurement of Spectral Transmission, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I.,  7, pp. 693–704; 1923.
[Crossref]

K. S. Gibson, Photoelectric Spectrophotometry by the Null Method, , October, 1919. In 1923 this method was superseded by an equal-deflections method, as described below.

Mathewson,

Gibson, Tyndall, McNicholas, Frehafer, and Mathewson, The Spectral Transmissive Properties of Dyes, , pp. 128–134; 1922.H. J. McNicholas, Use of the Underwater Spark with the Hilger Sector Photometer in Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, B. S. Jour. Res.,  1, (RP 33) pp. 939–949; December, 1928.

McNicholas,

Gibson, Tyndall, McNicholas, Frehafer, and Mathewson, The Spectral Transmissive Properties of Dyes, , pp. 128–134; 1922.H. J. McNicholas, Use of the Underwater Spark with the Hilger Sector Photometer in Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, B. S. Jour. Res.,  1, (RP 33) pp. 939–949; December, 1928.

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Stand. Jour. Research,  1 (RP 30), pp. 793–857; November, 1928.
[Crossref]

H. J. McNicholas, Absolute Methods in Reflectometry, Bur. Stand. Jour. Res.,  1 (RP 3), pp. 29–73; July, 1928.
[Crossref]

Priest, Irwin G.

Initiated by Irwin G. Priest See article by him, The Work of the National Bureau of Standards on The Establishment of Color Standards and Methods of Color Specification, Trans. I.E.S.,  13, pp. 38–19; Feb., 1918.

Tyndall,

Gibson, Tyndall, McNicholas, Frehafer, and Mathewson, The Spectral Transmissive Properties of Dyes, , pp. 128–134; 1922.H. J. McNicholas, Use of the Underwater Spark with the Hilger Sector Photometer in Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, B. S. Jour. Res.,  1, (RP 33) pp. 939–949; December, 1928.

Ann. der Physik (1)

Energieverteilung im kontinuierlichen spektrum des Aluminium-Unterwasserfunkens, Ann. der Physik,  391, pp. 1071–1088; 1928.
[Crossref]

Bur. Stand. Jour. Res. (1)

H. J. McNicholas, Absolute Methods in Reflectometry, Bur. Stand. Jour. Res.,  1 (RP 3), pp. 29–73; July, 1928.
[Crossref]

Bur. Stand. Jour. Research (1)

H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Stand. Jour. Research,  1 (RP 30), pp. 793–857; November, 1928.
[Crossref]

J.O.S.A. and R.S.I. (2)

K. S. Gibson, Direct-reading Photoelectric Measurement of Spectral Transmission, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I.,  7, pp. 693–704; 1923.
[Crossref]

J.O.S.A. and R.S.I.,  9, pp. 113–121; 1924., 1927., 1931.
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

Phys. Rev.,  8, pp. 674–688; 1916.
[Crossref]

Roy. Soc. Proc. (1)

Roy. Soc. Proc.,  113, pp. 709–716; 1927.
[Crossref]

RP 30 (1)

RP 30, pp. 848–850. Priest, McNicholas, and Frehafer, Some Tests of the Precision and Reliability of Measurements of Spectral Transmission by the Koenig-Martens Spectrophotometer, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I.,  8, pp. 201–212; January, 1924.
[Crossref]

Trans. I.E.S. (2)

Initiated by Irwin G. Priest See article by him, The Work of the National Bureau of Standards on The Establishment of Color Standards and Methods of Color Specification, Trans. I.E.S.,  13, pp. 38–19; Feb., 1918.

An Interlaboratory Comparison of Colored Photometric Filters, Trans. I.E.S.,  24, pp. 153–197; Feb., 1929. The above graph is given on page 198 of the discussion following the paper.

Other (11)

K. S. Gibson, Photoelectric Spectrophotometry by the Null Method, , October, 1919. In 1923 this method was superseded by an equal-deflections method, as described below.

;.

.

.

, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 10, pp. 169–241; February, 1925.K. S. Gibson, The Use of the Photoelectric Cell in Spectrophotometry, published in “ Photoelectric Cells and Their Applications,” pp. 157–173; June, 1930, by the Physical and Optical Societies, London.

These will tend to be most serious where the spectrophotometric curves show the greatest curvature, being determined mainly from the second derivatives of the luminosity curves resulting from (1) the energy distribution of the source, (2) the dispersion of the prism, (3) the visibility function, and (4) the spectral transmission or reflection of the sample. There are many kinds of work where the error may be negligible. Experimentally, such errors may be greatly reduced by the use of narrow slits. The slit widths which it is safe to use without making corrections to the results depend on the selectivity of the sample and the use of the results.

Advertising notices, 1928.

; 1920.; 1922. Brode, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,  46, pp. 2032–2043; 1924;J. Am. Chem. Soc. 48, pp. 1877–1882, 1984–1988, 2193–2206; 1926.J. Phys. Chem.,  30, pp. 56–69; 1926.; 1929.
[Crossref]

, pp. 131–133; 1922.

Gibson, Tyndall, McNicholas, Frehafer, and Mathewson, The Spectral Transmissive Properties of Dyes, , pp. 128–134; 1922.H. J. McNicholas, Use of the Underwater Spark with the Hilger Sector Photometer in Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, B. S. Jour. Res.,  1, (RP 33) pp. 939–949; December, 1928.

On the Bureau apparatus both sectors are made adjustable and the usual procedure is to take the second half of the plate with the solution and solvent interchanged. In this position the same exposures are made as on the first half of the plate but in reverse order. Averaging the corresponding pairs of readings tends to eliminate errors resulting from imperfect match of the comparison spectra.

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Figures (9)

F. 1
F. 1

General arrangement of Koenig-Martens spectrophotometer and, auxiliary equipment. (Uniform scale not used throughout the diagram.) This figure is taken from B. S. Res. Paper No. 30, Fig. 3, 1928.

F. 2
F. 2

Outline of photoelectric and thermoelectric apparatus. This figure is taken from J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 7, Fig. 3; 1923.

F. 3
F. 3

Diagram of Hilger sector photometer, quartz spectrograph, and accessory apparatus for ultraviolet spectrophotometry, This figure is taken from B. S. Sci. Paper No. 440, Fig. 3; 1922.

F. 4
F. 4

Showing extension of transmission measurements to very low values by means of Koenig-Martens spectrophotometer and auxiliary sector disks.

F. 5
F. 5

Illustrating degree of agreement obtained by visual, photoelectric, and thermoelectric methods in the measurement of a certain “daylite” glass. This glass and the one shown in Fig. 6 are referred to in the paper by McMichael and Barnard on this same program.

F. 6
F. 6

Illustrating degree of agreement obtained by visual, photoelectric, and thermoelectric methods in the measurement of a certain amber glass. This glass and the one shown in Fig. 5 are referred to in the paper by McMichael and Barnard on this same program.

F. 7
F. 7

Transmission curve of didymium glass. Spectrophotometers should enable accurate measurements to be made of curves as “steep” as those shown, which are often found with red, orange, yellow, blue, and purple glasses.

F. 8
F. 8

Illustrating degree of agreement obtained by visual, photoelectric, and thermoelectric methods in the measurement of a cobalt blue glass filter. This filter is one of several used by Crittenden and Taylor in an inter-laboratory comparison of colored photometric filters. The figure is taken from Trans. I.E.S., 24, p. 198; 1929.

F. 9
F. 9

Illustrating degree of agreement obtained by various spectrophotometric methods as noted. This cobalt blue glass is one of four measured in the national standardizing laboratories of England, France, Germany, and the United States. The figure is taken from an unpublished report by the author.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Tests of accuracy of photometric scale of Koenig-Martens spectrophotometer by means of rotating sectors.

Equations (1)

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