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  1. Paper presented at the special colorimetry session of the Optical Society of America, New York, February 26, 1931. Publication approved by the Director of the Bureau of Standards of the U. S. Dept. of Commerce.
  2. Report of O.S.A. Committee on Spectrophotometry, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 10, pp. 169–241; February, 1925. K. S. Gibson, The Use of the Photoelectric Cell in Spectrophotometry, published in "Photoelectric Cells and Their Applications," pp. 157–173; June, 1930, by the Physical and Optical Societies, London.
  3. H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Stand. Jour. Research, 1 (RP 30), pp. 793–857; November, 1928.
  4. These will tend to be most serious where the spectrophotometric curves show the greatest curvature, being determined mainly from the second derivatives of the luminosity curves resulting from (1) the energy distribution of the source, (2) the dispersion of the prism, (3) the visibility function, and (4) the spectral transmission or reflection of the sample. There are many kinds of work where the error may be negligible. Experimentally, such errors may be greatly reduced by the use of narrow slits. The slit widths which it is safe to use without making corrections to the results depend on the selectivity of the sample and the use of the results.
  5. RP 30, pp. 848–850. Priest, McNicholas, and Frehafer, Some Tests of the Precision and Reliability of Measurements of Spectral Transmission by the Koenig-Martens Spectrophotometer, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 8, pp. 201–212; January, 1924.
  6. H. J. McNicholas, Absolute Methods in Reflectometry, Bur. Stand. Jour. Res., 1 (RP3), pp. 29–73; July, 1928.
  7. Initiated by Irwin G. Priest, Chief of the Colorimetry Section. See article by him, The Work of the National Bureau of Standards on The Establishment of Color Standards and Methods of Color Specification, Trans. I.E.S., 13, pp. 38–49; Feb., 1918.
  8. K. S. Gibson, Photoelectric Spectrophotometry by the Null Method, Bur. Stand. Sci. Paper No. 349, October, 1919. In 1923 this method was superseded by an equal-deflections method, as described below.
  9. Bur. Stand. Sci. Papers No. 349; Bur. Stand. Tech. Papers No. 148.
  10. Bur. Stand. Sci. Papers No. 440.
  11. Bur. Stand. Tech. Papers No. 167.
  12. K. S. Gibson, Direct-reading Photoelectric Measurement of Spectral Transmission, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 7, pp. 693–704; 1923.
  13. J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 9, pp. 113–121; 1924. B.S. Sci. Paper No. 547, 1927. B.S. Misc. Pub. No. 114, 1931.
  14. Gibson, Tyndall, McNicholas, Frehafer, Mathewson, The Spectral Transmissive Properties of Dyes, B.S. Sci. Paper No. 440, pp. 128–134; 1922. H. J. McNicholas, Use of the Underwater Spark with the Hilger Sector Photometer in Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, B. S. Jour. Res., 1, (RP 33) pp. 939–949; December, 1928.
  15. On the Bureau apparatus both sectors are made adjustable and the usual procedure is to take the second half of the plate with the solution and solvent interchanged. In this position the same exposures are made as on the first half of the plate but in reverse order. Averaging the corresponding pairs of readings tends to eliminate errors resulting from imperfect match of the comparison spectra.
  16. Phys. Rev., 8, pp. 674–688; 1916.
  17. B.S. Sci. Pap. No. 440, pp. 131–133; 1922.
  18. Roy. Soc. Proc., 113, pp. 709–716; 1927.
  19. Advertising notices, 1928.
  20. B.S. Tech. Paper No. 148; 1920. B.S. Sci. Paper No. 440; 1922. Brode, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 46, pp. 2032–2043; 1924; 48, pp. 1877–1882, 1984–1988, 2193–2206; 1926. J. Phys. Chem., 30, pp. 56–69; 1926. B.S. Res. Paper No. 47; 1929.
  21. Energieverteilung im kontinuierlichen spektrum des Aluminium-Unterwasserfunkens, Ann. der Physik, 391, pp. 1071–1088; 1928.
  22. An Interlaboratory Comparison of Colored Photometric Filters, Trans. I.E.S., 24, pp. 153–197; Feb., 1929. The above graph is given on page 198 of the discussion following the paper.

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, Photoelectric Spectrophotometry by the Null Method, Bur. Stand. Sci. Paper No. 349, October, 1919. In 1923 this method was superseded by an equal-deflections method, as described below.

K. S. Gibson, Direct-reading Photoelectric Measurement of Spectral Transmission, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 7, pp. 693–704; 1923.

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Stand. Jour. Research, 1 (RP 30), pp. 793–857; November, 1928.

H. J. McNicholas, Absolute Methods in Reflectometry, Bur. Stand. Jour. Res., 1 (RP3), pp. 29–73; July, 1928.

Priest, Irwin G.

Initiated by Irwin G. Priest, Chief of the Colorimetry Section. See article by him, The Work of the National Bureau of Standards on The Establishment of Color Standards and Methods of Color Specification, Trans. I.E.S., 13, pp. 38–49; Feb., 1918.

Other

Paper presented at the special colorimetry session of the Optical Society of America, New York, February 26, 1931. Publication approved by the Director of the Bureau of Standards of the U. S. Dept. of Commerce.

Report of O.S.A. Committee on Spectrophotometry, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 10, pp. 169–241; February, 1925. K. S. Gibson, The Use of the Photoelectric Cell in Spectrophotometry, published in "Photoelectric Cells and Their Applications," pp. 157–173; June, 1930, by the Physical and Optical Societies, London.

H. J. McNicholas, Equipment for Routine Spectral Transmission and Reflection Measurements, Bur. Stand. Jour. Research, 1 (RP 30), pp. 793–857; November, 1928.

These will tend to be most serious where the spectrophotometric curves show the greatest curvature, being determined mainly from the second derivatives of the luminosity curves resulting from (1) the energy distribution of the source, (2) the dispersion of the prism, (3) the visibility function, and (4) the spectral transmission or reflection of the sample. There are many kinds of work where the error may be negligible. Experimentally, such errors may be greatly reduced by the use of narrow slits. The slit widths which it is safe to use without making corrections to the results depend on the selectivity of the sample and the use of the results.

RP 30, pp. 848–850. Priest, McNicholas, and Frehafer, Some Tests of the Precision and Reliability of Measurements of Spectral Transmission by the Koenig-Martens Spectrophotometer, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 8, pp. 201–212; January, 1924.

H. J. McNicholas, Absolute Methods in Reflectometry, Bur. Stand. Jour. Res., 1 (RP3), pp. 29–73; July, 1928.

Initiated by Irwin G. Priest, Chief of the Colorimetry Section. See article by him, The Work of the National Bureau of Standards on The Establishment of Color Standards and Methods of Color Specification, Trans. I.E.S., 13, pp. 38–49; Feb., 1918.

K. S. Gibson, Photoelectric Spectrophotometry by the Null Method, Bur. Stand. Sci. Paper No. 349, October, 1919. In 1923 this method was superseded by an equal-deflections method, as described below.

Bur. Stand. Sci. Papers No. 349; Bur. Stand. Tech. Papers No. 148.

Bur. Stand. Sci. Papers No. 440.

Bur. Stand. Tech. Papers No. 167.

K. S. Gibson, Direct-reading Photoelectric Measurement of Spectral Transmission, J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 7, pp. 693–704; 1923.

J.O.S.A. and R.S.I., 9, pp. 113–121; 1924. B.S. Sci. Paper No. 547, 1927. B.S. Misc. Pub. No. 114, 1931.

Gibson, Tyndall, McNicholas, Frehafer, Mathewson, The Spectral Transmissive Properties of Dyes, B.S. Sci. Paper No. 440, pp. 128–134; 1922. H. J. McNicholas, Use of the Underwater Spark with the Hilger Sector Photometer in Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, B. S. Jour. Res., 1, (RP 33) pp. 939–949; December, 1928.

On the Bureau apparatus both sectors are made adjustable and the usual procedure is to take the second half of the plate with the solution and solvent interchanged. In this position the same exposures are made as on the first half of the plate but in reverse order. Averaging the corresponding pairs of readings tends to eliminate errors resulting from imperfect match of the comparison spectra.

Phys. Rev., 8, pp. 674–688; 1916.

B.S. Sci. Pap. No. 440, pp. 131–133; 1922.

Roy. Soc. Proc., 113, pp. 709–716; 1927.

Advertising notices, 1928.

B.S. Tech. Paper No. 148; 1920. B.S. Sci. Paper No. 440; 1922. Brode, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 46, pp. 2032–2043; 1924; 48, pp. 1877–1882, 1984–1988, 2193–2206; 1926. J. Phys. Chem., 30, pp. 56–69; 1926. B.S. Res. Paper No. 47; 1929.

Energieverteilung im kontinuierlichen spektrum des Aluminium-Unterwasserfunkens, Ann. der Physik, 391, pp. 1071–1088; 1928.

An Interlaboratory Comparison of Colored Photometric Filters, Trans. I.E.S., 24, pp. 153–197; Feb., 1929. The above graph is given on page 198 of the discussion following the paper.

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