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Figures (8)

F. 1
F. 1

Visibility of the spectrum. The continuous line represents the average data of Gibson and Tyndall computed so as to refer to Abbot-Priest sunlight. The light, dashed lines indicate the range within which fall the measurements of the completely studied, normal observers in this investigation. The dotted line represents the sum of the cone primaries V0, G0, and R0.

F. 2
F. 2

A tentative set of cone primaries, designed to describe perfectly the data of colorimetric purity, of visibility and of hue discrimination,—and to describe approximately the data of complementary color luminosity and of color mixture.

F. 3
F. 3

Several sets of cone primaries designed for different purposes. The set V0G0R0 describes visibility and color mixture perfectly, and hue discrimination and saturation approximately. The set V0G0R0′ is a slight variant of V0G0R0 and deals especially with colorimetric purity. The set VLGLRL is especially concerned with hue discrimination.

F. 4
F. 4

Least perceptible colorimetric purity as given by the average data of Priest and Brick wedde, as given from the complementary color luminosity data of Sinden, and as derived theoretically from the cone primaries V0, G0, and R0 and from the cone primaries V0′, G0′, and R0′. Compare these curves with those in Fig. 5.

F. 5
F. 5

The individual measurements of least perceptible colorimetric purity by Priest and Brickwedde. Compare the range of individual variation shown here with the differences between measurements and theory. Note especially Priest’s measurements between 400 and 500 and compare them with the theoretically derived curves in Fig. 4.

F. 6
F. 6

Values of V0G0 or R0G0 and of VLGL or RLGL from which theoretical hue discrimination curves are derived.

F. 7
F. 7

Hue discrimination as measured by Laurens and Hamilton for their own eyes, and as derived theoretically from V0, G0, and R0. The hue discrimination function derived from VL,GL, and RL coincides with the curve for Laurens’ eye.

F. 8
F. 8

Excitation curves for sunlight. The set v0g0r0 is the one adopted by the Optical Society. The sets vKgKrK and vDgDrD are the original ones of Koenig and Dieterici for their own eyes;their original ordinates have been multiplied by 0.035 to make them comparable to the other curves in this figure. The set vLgLrL is the one assumed to give the cone primaries VL, GL, and RL which yield a hue discrimination function exactly reproducing the data for Laurens’ eye. The points for Koenig and for Dieterici have been connected with vertical lines to emphasize the individual variation possible in such measurements. To be compared with the differences between Koenig and Dieterici are the differences between the set v0g0r0 and the set vLgLrL.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Relative luminosities of spectral complementaries. Data from Sinden (25).

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Table 2 Excitation curves derived from the computations of Weaver (27) based on the data of Koenig and Dieterici (19) and Abney (1). Energy distribution in Abbot-Priest sunlight (23) (15).

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Table 3 Values of three sets of hypothetical cone primaries.

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Table 4 Relation of the properties of color vision to the excitation curves and to the hypothetical cone primaries.

Equations (26)

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V 0 = .033 v 0 + .557 g 0 + .396 r 0
G 0 = .008 v 0 + .607 g 0 + .399 r 0
R 0 = .003 v 0 + .477 g 0 + .519 r 0
V 0 + G 0 + R 0 = .444 v 0 + 1.641 g 0 + 1.314 r 0
L 0 = ( V 0 + G 0 + R 0 ) 3 = .015 v 0 + .547 g 0 + .438 r 0
S λ < 550 = V 0 + G 0 2 R 0 V 0 + G 0 + R 0
S λ > 550 = G 0 + R 0 2 V 0 V 0 + G 0 + R 0
P λ = B λ B W
B λ = k S λ
P λ = K P S λ
V 0 = .042 v 0 + .721 g 0 + .240 r 0
G 0 = .010 v 0 + .738 g 0 + .276 r 0
R 0 = .004 v 0 + .605 g 0 + .365 r 0
d H d λ = d ( V 0 G 0 ) d λ
d H d λ = d ( R 0 G 0 ) d λ
Δ λ C = K H Δ λ Δ ( V 0 G 0 )
Δ λ C = K H Δ λ Δ ( R 0 G 0 )
V L = .032 v L + .533 g L + .401 r L
G L = .007 v L + .620 g L + .402 r L
R L = .006 v L + .489 g L + .541 r L
f ( .015 v 0 .547 g 0 .438 r 0 )
f ( V 0 G 0 R 0 )
.013 v 0 + .070 g 0 .081 r 0 .015 v 0 + .547 g 0 + .438 r 0 .018 v 0 .010 g 0 + .043 r 0 .015 v 0 + .547 g 0 + .438 r 0
V 0 + G 0 + R 0 3 R 0 V 0 + G 0 + R 0 V 0 + G 0 + R 0 3 V 0 V 0 + G 0 + R 0
.025 v 0 .050 g 0 .004 r 0 .010 v 0 .130 g 0 + .120 r 0
V 0 G 0 R 0 G 0