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References

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  1. Am. Jour. Physiol.,  87, p. 391; December, 1928.
  2. Am. Jour. Med. Assoc.,  88, p. 1362; May, 1927.
  3. Strahlenther,  13, p. 41; 1922.
  4. Phys. Rev. 14, p. 427; 1919.
    [CrossRef]
  5. Phys. Rev.,  10, p. 397; 1917. Phys. Rev.,  10, p. 377; 1917. J.O.S.A. 7, p. 1115; 1923.
    [CrossRef]
  6. Astrophys. Jour.,  45, p. 149; 1917.
    [CrossRef]
  7. Astrophys. Jour.,  61, p. 176; 1925.
  8. J.O.S.A.,  7, p. 1115; 1923.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection,  74, p. 15; 1923. Annals Astrophysical Observatory,  2, p. 112; 1908.
  10. Comptes Rendues,  175, p. 156; 1922. Astrophys. Jour.,  54, p. 297; 1921.
    [CrossRef]
  11. Sonderdruch aus “Gerlands Beitrage zur Geophysik”, xvi, p. 344; 1927.
  12. Annals of Astrophysical Observatory,  4, p. 192; 1922.
  13. J.O.S.A., & R.S.I.,  17, p. 329; 1928.
    [CrossRef]
  14. Bulletin of Bureau of Standards,  16, p. 240; 1920.
  15. Unpublished data furnished by Prof. George Winchester. See also Riddle, J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  18, p. 442, June, 1929.
  16. Lemon Bundesen and et al., Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc.,  89, p. 187; 1927.
  17. Compare Stockbarger and et al., J.O.S.A., & R.S.L,  18, p. 53; Jan.1929.
    [CrossRef]

1929 (2)

Unpublished data furnished by Prof. George Winchester. See also Riddle, J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  18, p. 442, June, 1929.

Compare Stockbarger and et al., J.O.S.A., & R.S.L,  18, p. 53; Jan.1929.
[CrossRef]

1928 (2)

J.O.S.A., & R.S.I.,  17, p. 329; 1928.
[CrossRef]

Am. Jour. Physiol.,  87, p. 391; December, 1928.

1927 (3)

Am. Jour. Med. Assoc.,  88, p. 1362; May, 1927.

Sonderdruch aus “Gerlands Beitrage zur Geophysik”, xvi, p. 344; 1927.

Lemon Bundesen and et al., Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc.,  89, p. 187; 1927.

1925 (1)

Astrophys. Jour.,  61, p. 176; 1925.

1923 (2)

J.O.S.A.,  7, p. 1115; 1923.
[CrossRef]

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection,  74, p. 15; 1923. Annals Astrophysical Observatory,  2, p. 112; 1908.

1922 (3)

Comptes Rendues,  175, p. 156; 1922. Astrophys. Jour.,  54, p. 297; 1921.
[CrossRef]

Strahlenther,  13, p. 41; 1922.

Annals of Astrophysical Observatory,  4, p. 192; 1922.

1920 (1)

Bulletin of Bureau of Standards,  16, p. 240; 1920.

1919 (1)

Phys. Rev. 14, p. 427; 1919.
[CrossRef]

1917 (2)

Phys. Rev.,  10, p. 397; 1917. Phys. Rev.,  10, p. 377; 1917. J.O.S.A. 7, p. 1115; 1923.
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Jour.,  45, p. 149; 1917.
[CrossRef]

Bundesen, Lemon

Lemon Bundesen and et al., Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc.,  89, p. 187; 1927.

Riddle,

Unpublished data furnished by Prof. George Winchester. See also Riddle, J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  18, p. 442, June, 1929.

Stockbarger, Compare

Compare Stockbarger and et al., J.O.S.A., & R.S.L,  18, p. 53; Jan.1929.
[CrossRef]

Am. Jour. Med. Assoc. (1)

Am. Jour. Med. Assoc.,  88, p. 1362; May, 1927.

Am. Jour. Physiol. (1)

Am. Jour. Physiol.,  87, p. 391; December, 1928.

Annals of Astrophysical Observatory (1)

Annals of Astrophysical Observatory,  4, p. 192; 1922.

Astrophys. Jour. (2)

Astrophys. Jour.,  45, p. 149; 1917.
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Jour.,  61, p. 176; 1925.

Bulletin of Bureau of Standards (1)

Bulletin of Bureau of Standards,  16, p. 240; 1920.

Comptes Rendues (1)

Comptes Rendues,  175, p. 156; 1922. Astrophys. Jour.,  54, p. 297; 1921.
[CrossRef]

J.O.S.A. (1)

J.O.S.A.,  7, p. 1115; 1923.
[CrossRef]

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. (1)

Unpublished data furnished by Prof. George Winchester. See also Riddle, J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  18, p. 442, June, 1929.

J.O.S.A., & R.S.I. (1)

J.O.S.A., & R.S.I.,  17, p. 329; 1928.
[CrossRef]

J.O.S.A., & R.S.L (1)

Compare Stockbarger and et al., J.O.S.A., & R.S.L,  18, p. 53; Jan.1929.
[CrossRef]

Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc. (1)

Lemon Bundesen and et al., Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc.,  89, p. 187; 1927.

Phys. Rev. (2)

Phys. Rev. 14, p. 427; 1919.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.,  10, p. 397; 1917. Phys. Rev.,  10, p. 377; 1917. J.O.S.A. 7, p. 1115; 1923.
[CrossRef]

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection (1)

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection,  74, p. 15; 1923. Annals Astrophysical Observatory,  2, p. 112; 1908.

Sonderdruch aus “Gerlands Beitrage zur Geophysik”, xvi (1)

Sonderdruch aus “Gerlands Beitrage zur Geophysik”, xvi, p. 344; 1927.

Strahlenther (1)

Strahlenther,  13, p. 41; 1922.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation of different wave lengths in producing erythema.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral emissivity of tungsten for different temperatures and several different wave lengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral emissivity of tungsten for 2800°K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral transmission of the atmosphere for short wave lengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Prof. Winchester’s limit of blackening on photographic plates for north sky at New Brunswick (N. J.) for different seasons of the year. The vertical line above each month denotes its beginning.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ultraviolet energy below 3100A from the sun falling on a square centimeter of the earth’s surface per second for latitude of Cleveland for different times of the day and different seasons.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ultraviolet energy below 3100A from the sun falling upon a square centimeter of the earth’s surface per second for the latitude of Cleveland for different times of the year for 12 o’clock noon. The vertical line above each month denotes its beginning.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Energy distribution in the ultraviolet region. Values as plotted show the amount of energy per second falling on a square centimeter of the earth’s surface for the sun directly overhead, and the energy per square centimeter per second from the tungsten filament at a distance of one meter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative erythema produced by the black body (curve B) and tungsten filament (curve A) at different temperatures.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative erythema that will be produced by the sun on clear days at the latitude of Cleveland for different times of the year. The vertical line above each month denotes its beginning.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Energy in various parts of the spectrum of the sun for various air masses and for some tungsten lamps

Tables Icon

Table 2 Total energy, illumination, and ultraviolet energy from the sun and some tungsten filament lamps

Equations (1)

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100 - R λ = e λ = 3650 ρ / λ