Abstract

The paper presents two phases of the subject. (I) Schematic description of an apparently new type of optical instrument, designed by Liggett and Dodd, which permits conditions within wide limits for accommodation of the eyes independent of convergence, and also the measurement of muscular imbalance (strabismus) and range of fusion. It uses plane mirrors rather than refracting prisms, thus eliminating distortion, chromatic aberration and astigmatism in the images. The optical system is essentially different from that of the short-base range finder and of the Helmholtz stereoscope, in that (a) rays enter the eyes from the outer rather than the inner mirrors, and (b) the outer mirrors are variable in position through large angles. (II) Derivation of geometrical expressions for (1) magnitude of “field of view” (that is, angular range of visibility of secondary image of stationary point-object), (2) direction of field of view, and (3) boundaries of useful areas of mirrors, —applicable to a pair of independently variable plane mirrors with parallel axes in the respective planes, as adapted in an instrument of this kind (one pair of mirrors to each eye).

The designing entailed the fulfilling of several requirements having somewhat narrow limits and culminated in finding a suitable combination of some half-dozen variable quantities.

© 1930 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Paper appearing on the program of the American Physical Society, Berkeley meeting, June 21, 22, 1929, with the title, “Field of View of Secondary Image, with Point-Object Stationary, for Two Independently Variable Plane Mirrors Having Limited Widths.” The words “with point-object stationary” refer to the object distance as a variable parameter.
  2. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  17, 5, November, 1928, pp. 369–78. A general treatment of a system of any number of plane mirrors, in matrix mathematics, was published recently by T. Smith, Transactions of the Optical Society,  30, 2, 1928–9, pp. 68–78.
    [CrossRef]
  3. Quantities r=AO¯, d=A0A¯ are considered intrinsically positive.
  4. While 25 cm may be an objectionable average value, it serves as a suitable lower limit here. If a larger value is taken, the conclusion as to relative constancy of Δσ, σv, still holds.

1928 (1)

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  17, 5, November, 1928, pp. 369–78. A general treatment of a system of any number of plane mirrors, in matrix mathematics, was published recently by T. Smith, Transactions of the Optical Society,  30, 2, 1928–9, pp. 68–78.
[CrossRef]

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. (1)

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  17, 5, November, 1928, pp. 369–78. A general treatment of a system of any number of plane mirrors, in matrix mathematics, was published recently by T. Smith, Transactions of the Optical Society,  30, 2, 1928–9, pp. 68–78.
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Quantities r=AO¯, d=A0A¯ are considered intrinsically positive.

While 25 cm may be an objectionable average value, it serves as a suitable lower limit here. If a larger value is taken, the conclusion as to relative constancy of Δσ, σv, still holds.

Paper appearing on the program of the American Physical Society, Berkeley meeting, June 21, 22, 1929, with the title, “Field of View of Secondary Image, with Point-Object Stationary, for Two Independently Variable Plane Mirrors Having Limited Widths.” The words “with point-object stationary” refer to the object distance as a variable parameter.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system of oclinometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Inter-image angle, Ω=Ω12, corresponding to cases of internal and external strabismus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two plane mirrors variable independently about parallel axes, A, A0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Derivational diagram.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lower limiting ray, R1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Upper limiting ray, R2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Field of view in oclinometer.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Values of field of view, Δσ, and its direction, σv, roughly approximate, obtained graphically for different values of at least six variable quantities.

Equations (14)

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ρ 2 = ( x 0 2 + y 0 2 ) + 2 d [ y 0 sin 2 ξ + 2 ( d - x 0 ) sin 2 ξ ] ϕ = η + α + - ψ }
σ 3 = σ 2 - δ 2 = - τ + 2 η + 90.
sin η = ± ( - B ± ( B 2 - 4 A C ) 1 / 2 2 A ) 1 / 2 ,
σ 3 = θ + 2 η - 2 ξ + 90 ,
sin η = ± ( - B ± ( B 2 + 4 C ) 1 / 2 - 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
θ = σ 3 - 2 η + 2 ξ - 90 ,
2 η = ϕ + ξ - α + ψ ,
sin ϕ = - ( b cos σ 3 ± sin σ 3 ( 1 - b 2 ) 1 / 2 ) ,
sin ψ = d [ y 0 cos 2 ξ + ( d - x 0 ) sin 2 ξ ] / [ ρ [ ( d - x 0 ) 2 + y 0 2 ] 1 / 2 ] ,
σ 3 = θ + 2 η - 230 ° ,
sin η = ± ( - B ± ( B 2 + 4 C ) 1 / 2 - 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
θ = σ 3 - 2 η + 230 ° ,
2 η = ϕ + ψ + 50 ,
sin ϕ = - [ b cos σ 3 ± sin σ 3 ( 1 - b 2 ) 1 / 2 ] ,