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  1. Journal Optical Society & R.S.I.,  17, 6, p. 435; 1928.
    [Crossref]
  2. The idea of using a large lens for this purpose, is, I find, disclosed in a French patent to Bessière (#590, 853, 1925). Inasmuch however as Bessière’s procedure would fail to give satisfactory relief pictures, as pointed out below, I have felt warranted in describing in detail my own analysis of the problem which has been experimentally confirmed.
  3. When this is done the relief picture has an exposed film surface, which requires an extra covering glass to prevent injury. The same optical result may be attained while avoiding this inconvenience by inserting the negative plate backward and exposing through the glass. In either of these procedures there is the theoretical objection that a refracting layer is introduced at one stage, not present in the other, whereby the more oblique light beams are distorted. An optically ideal solution is to use a 45° mirror in taking or viewing. (It is indifferent whether this inverts right and left or up and down.) In practice however this inversion may obten be omitted since the mirror image obtained without inverting is usually quite satisfactory.
  4. Bessière specifies that the viewing grating shall be identical with the taking grating. He also states, erroneously, that it is indifferent whether the viewing grating is used in front of or behind the picture. In a later patent (618, 880, 1927) he corrects this latter statement, but says that when the picture is placed between the grating and the eye, as it must be to give correct relief, the picture is indistinct. In consequence, he abandons the large lens in favor of a series of small lenses each furnished with an inverting prism.

1928 (1)

Journal Optical Society & R.S.I.,  17, 6, p. 435; 1928.
[Crossref]

Journal Optical Society & R.S.I. (1)

Journal Optical Society & R.S.I.,  17, 6, p. 435; 1928.
[Crossref]

Other (3)

The idea of using a large lens for this purpose, is, I find, disclosed in a French patent to Bessière (#590, 853, 1925). Inasmuch however as Bessière’s procedure would fail to give satisfactory relief pictures, as pointed out below, I have felt warranted in describing in detail my own analysis of the problem which has been experimentally confirmed.

When this is done the relief picture has an exposed film surface, which requires an extra covering glass to prevent injury. The same optical result may be attained while avoiding this inconvenience by inserting the negative plate backward and exposing through the glass. In either of these procedures there is the theoretical objection that a refracting layer is introduced at one stage, not present in the other, whereby the more oblique light beams are distorted. An optically ideal solution is to use a 45° mirror in taking or viewing. (It is indifferent whether this inverts right and left or up and down.) In practice however this inversion may obten be omitted since the mirror image obtained without inverting is usually quite satisfactory.

Bessière specifies that the viewing grating shall be identical with the taking grating. He also states, erroneously, that it is indifferent whether the viewing grating is used in front of or behind the picture. In a later patent (618, 880, 1927) he corrects this latter statement, but says that when the picture is placed between the grating and the eye, as it must be to give correct relief, the picture is indistinct. In consequence, he abandons the large lens in favor of a series of small lenses each furnished with an inverting prism.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two methods of making parallax panoramagram negatives. (a) A moving lens exposing a sensitive plate behind a grating slightly separated from it; lens, grating and plate being maintained in line during the exposure. (b) A large stationary lens, projecting an image on a stationary plate through a grating slightly separated from it.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Different methods of viewing a parallax panoramagram positive transparency. (a) The picture is viewed through the grating. (b) The grating is viewed through the picture. (c) The grating is viewed through the picture, but the picture is inverted by placing the sensitive emulsion nearest the eye.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Paths of light beams in taking and viewing parallax panoramagrams made with a large diameter lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Determination of separation of grating and plate as function of grating spacing, lens diameter and focal distance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Exact analysis of paths of taking and viewing beams.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Method of making enlarged viewing gratings by the use of a point source of light and separation of master complementary grating and sensitive plate.

Equations (4)

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M = F + 2 d F
d s = F D
M = 1 + 2 s D
M = 1 + 2 / 50 12 = 1.003.