Abstract

Light from a mercury arc in quartz, operating at atmospheric pressure, and excited by-various electrical means was photographed through a quartz spectrograph.

Line Spectra: With very high currents through the arc some thirteen lines were found to be self-reversed, two of which are spark lines. The reversal of one of these (λ1942) supports the view of Carrol, Turner and Compton that it is a member of the first doublet of the principal series of Hg+. Lines of the diffuse series of Hg appear to be the most readily reversed.

Continuous Spectra: With relatively low currents through the arc the continuous spectrum appears in four discrete bands, three of which have intensity maxima lying close to the three spectral series limits: λ4580; λ3320; λ2240. A modification of Bohr’s theory, which attributes bands of continuous radiation to the recombination of electrons with atomic or molecular ions, is found to agree very well with the observed facts. From theoretical considerations it is shown that a velocity distribution of the free electrons in the arc, corresponding to a temperature 2500°K, gives an intensity distribution of continuous spectrum in agreement with that observed. Certain observations by Rayleigh are found to be compatible with this theory.

© 1928 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Wright, Nature,  109, p. 810; 1922.
    [Crossref]
  2. Nicholson, Monthly Notices 85, p. 253; 1925. Crew and Hulburt, Phys. Rev.,  28, p. 936; 1926.
    [Crossref]
  3. Mohler, Phys. Rev.,  31, p. 187; 1928.
    [Crossref]
  4. Houtermans, ZS. f. Phys.,  41, p. 140; 1927. Asterblum, ZS. f. Phys.,  43, p. 427; 1927.
    [Crossref]
  5. Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. soc. A114, p. 620; 1927.
    [Crossref]
  6. Hori-Memoirs of Coll. of Sci, Kyoto Imp. Univ, A9, p. 379; 1926.Also Inst. of Phys. and Chem. Res. Sci. Papers,  4, p. 59; 1926.
  7. Wood, Phil. Mag 4, p. 466; 1927. Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc,  A114, p. 620; 1927. Takamine, ZS. f. Phys.,  37, p. 72; 1926.
    [Crossref]
  8. Wien, Ann. der Phys.,  73, p. 483; 1924.
    [Crossref]
  9. Carrol, Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans.,  225, p. 357; 1926.
    [Crossref]
  10. Turner and Compton, Phys. Rev.,  25, p. 613; 1925.
    [Crossref]
  11. Déjardin; Ann. de Physique,  8, p. 424; 1927.
  12. Déjardin, (loc. cit.) records two lines, λ1972·72 and λ1972·10: the former he attributes to the ion Hg++, the latter has not been identified.
  13. Crew and Hulburt, Phys. Rev.,  28, p. 938; 1926.
  14. Rayleigh, Proc. Roy, Soc.,  A108, p. 271; 1925.
  15. Phillips, Proc. Roy. Soc.,  A89, p. 118; 1913.
  16. Rouse and Giddings, Proc Nat’l. Acad. Sci. 11, p. 514; 1925.
    [Crossref]
  17. Life of excited mercury atom. Wien: Ann. der Phys.,  73, p. 483; 1924.
    [Crossref]
  18. Mohler and Moore, J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  15, p. 74; 1927.
    [Crossref]
  19. Volkringer, Compt. Rend. 185, p. 60; 1927.

1928 (1)

Mohler, Phys. Rev.,  31, p. 187; 1928.
[Crossref]

1927 (6)

Houtermans, ZS. f. Phys.,  41, p. 140; 1927. Asterblum, ZS. f. Phys.,  43, p. 427; 1927.
[Crossref]

Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. soc. A114, p. 620; 1927.
[Crossref]

Wood, Phil. Mag 4, p. 466; 1927. Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc,  A114, p. 620; 1927. Takamine, ZS. f. Phys.,  37, p. 72; 1926.
[Crossref]

Déjardin; Ann. de Physique,  8, p. 424; 1927.

Mohler and Moore, J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  15, p. 74; 1927.
[Crossref]

Volkringer, Compt. Rend. 185, p. 60; 1927.

1926 (2)

Crew and Hulburt, Phys. Rev.,  28, p. 938; 1926.

Carrol, Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans.,  225, p. 357; 1926.
[Crossref]

1925 (4)

Turner and Compton, Phys. Rev.,  25, p. 613; 1925.
[Crossref]

Nicholson, Monthly Notices 85, p. 253; 1925. Crew and Hulburt, Phys. Rev.,  28, p. 936; 1926.
[Crossref]

Rayleigh, Proc. Roy, Soc.,  A108, p. 271; 1925.

Rouse and Giddings, Proc Nat’l. Acad. Sci. 11, p. 514; 1925.
[Crossref]

1924 (2)

Life of excited mercury atom. Wien: Ann. der Phys.,  73, p. 483; 1924.
[Crossref]

Wien, Ann. der Phys.,  73, p. 483; 1924.
[Crossref]

1922 (1)

Wright, Nature,  109, p. 810; 1922.
[Crossref]

1913 (1)

Phillips, Proc. Roy. Soc.,  A89, p. 118; 1913.

Carrol,

Carrol, Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans.,  225, p. 357; 1926.
[Crossref]

Compton,

Turner and Compton, Phys. Rev.,  25, p. 613; 1925.
[Crossref]

Crew,

Crew and Hulburt, Phys. Rev.,  28, p. 938; 1926.

Déjardin,

Déjardin; Ann. de Physique,  8, p. 424; 1927.

Giddings,

Rouse and Giddings, Proc Nat’l. Acad. Sci. 11, p. 514; 1925.
[Crossref]

Houtermans,

Houtermans, ZS. f. Phys.,  41, p. 140; 1927. Asterblum, ZS. f. Phys.,  43, p. 427; 1927.
[Crossref]

Hulburt,

Crew and Hulburt, Phys. Rev.,  28, p. 938; 1926.

Mohler,

Mohler, Phys. Rev.,  31, p. 187; 1928.
[Crossref]

Mohler and Moore, J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  15, p. 74; 1927.
[Crossref]

Moore,

Mohler and Moore, J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  15, p. 74; 1927.
[Crossref]

Nicholson,

Nicholson, Monthly Notices 85, p. 253; 1925. Crew and Hulburt, Phys. Rev.,  28, p. 936; 1926.
[Crossref]

Phillips,

Phillips, Proc. Roy. Soc.,  A89, p. 118; 1913.

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. soc. A114, p. 620; 1927.
[Crossref]

Rayleigh, Proc. Roy, Soc.,  A108, p. 271; 1925.

Rouse,

Rouse and Giddings, Proc Nat’l. Acad. Sci. 11, p. 514; 1925.
[Crossref]

Turner,

Turner and Compton, Phys. Rev.,  25, p. 613; 1925.
[Crossref]

Volkringer,

Volkringer, Compt. Rend. 185, p. 60; 1927.

Wien,

Wien, Ann. der Phys.,  73, p. 483; 1924.
[Crossref]

Life of excited mercury atom. Wien: Ann. der Phys.,  73, p. 483; 1924.
[Crossref]

Wood,

Wood, Phil. Mag 4, p. 466; 1927. Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc,  A114, p. 620; 1927. Takamine, ZS. f. Phys.,  37, p. 72; 1926.
[Crossref]

Wright,

Wright, Nature,  109, p. 810; 1922.
[Crossref]

Ann. de Physique (1)

Déjardin; Ann. de Physique,  8, p. 424; 1927.

Ann. der Phys. (2)

Life of excited mercury atom. Wien: Ann. der Phys.,  73, p. 483; 1924.
[Crossref]

Wien, Ann. der Phys.,  73, p. 483; 1924.
[Crossref]

Compt. Rend. (1)

Volkringer, Compt. Rend. 185, p. 60; 1927.

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. (1)

Mohler and Moore, J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  15, p. 74; 1927.
[Crossref]

Monthly Notices (1)

Nicholson, Monthly Notices 85, p. 253; 1925. Crew and Hulburt, Phys. Rev.,  28, p. 936; 1926.
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Wright, Nature,  109, p. 810; 1922.
[Crossref]

Phil. Mag (1)

Wood, Phil. Mag 4, p. 466; 1927. Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc,  A114, p. 620; 1927. Takamine, ZS. f. Phys.,  37, p. 72; 1926.
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (3)

Mohler, Phys. Rev.,  31, p. 187; 1928.
[Crossref]

Turner and Compton, Phys. Rev.,  25, p. 613; 1925.
[Crossref]

Crew and Hulburt, Phys. Rev.,  28, p. 938; 1926.

Proc Nat’l. Acad. Sci. (1)

Rouse and Giddings, Proc Nat’l. Acad. Sci. 11, p. 514; 1925.
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy, Soc. (1)

Rayleigh, Proc. Roy, Soc.,  A108, p. 271; 1925.

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

Phillips, Proc. Roy. Soc.,  A89, p. 118; 1913.

Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. soc. A114, p. 620; 1927.
[Crossref]

Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans. (1)

Carrol, Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans.,  225, p. 357; 1926.
[Crossref]

ZS. f. Phys. (1)

Houtermans, ZS. f. Phys.,  41, p. 140; 1927. Asterblum, ZS. f. Phys.,  43, p. 427; 1927.
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Hori-Memoirs of Coll. of Sci, Kyoto Imp. Univ, A9, p. 379; 1926.Also Inst. of Phys. and Chem. Res. Sci. Papers,  4, p. 59; 1926.

Déjardin, (loc. cit.) records two lines, λ1972·72 and λ1972·10: the former he attributes to the ion Hg++, the latter has not been identified.

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Figures (6)

F. 1
F. 1

Quartz mercury arc.

F. 2
F. 2

Mercury spectra, excited by (a) direct current; (b) condensed discharge; (c) high voltage, alternating current.

F. 3
F. 3

Diagram of lower energy levels of the mercury atom.

F. 4
F. 4

Mercury spectra excited by direct current at (a) 85 v, 500 ma; (b) 90 v, 350 ma; (c) 100 v, 250 ma; (d) 125 v, 120 ma; (e) 300 v, 30 ma.

F. 5
F. 5

Highly damped condensed discharge in mercury.

F. 6
F. 6

Observed and calculated curves of intensity variation in continuous spectra of mercury.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Lines observed to be self-reversed.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectral series of Mercury, their wave-length limits, and positions of observed band maxima.