Abstract

With a quartz spectrograph, sodium hydride quartz photoelectric cell and quadrant electrometer, measurements were made in the ultraviolet spectrum region λ4000 to 2500A of the light absorption coefficients of pure water and sea water and of the molecular absorption coefficients of aqueous solutions of the principle salts in the sea, namely, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, MgSO4 and CaSO4. The transparency of the sea water declines rapidly with decreasing wave length in the ultraviolet becoming quite small below λ3000A. From λ3400 to 3000A, CaSO4 contributes about half to the absorption of sea water, H2O about a fourth and the other salts the rest; from λ3000 to 2500A, MgCl2, CaSO4 and H2O each contribute roughly a third, the other salts giving relatively little absorption. There is a close correspondence between the falling off in the transparency of the sea with decreasing wave length in the ultra violet and the spectral energy curve of sunlight. This, together with the very similar correspondence in the case of the transparency of the atmosphere permits the suggestion that the actinic effects of sunlight may have played a part, perhaps more important than has been heretofore recognized, in the constitution of the sea and the air.

© 1928 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Martin, Journ. Phys. Chem.,  26, p. 471; 1922.
    [Crossref]
  2. Aufsess, Ann. d. Phys.,  13, 1904.
  3. Kreusler, Ann. d. Phys.,  6, p. 412; 1901.
    [Crossref]
  4. Hulburt, J.O.S.A., & R.S.I. 13, p. 553; 1926.
    [Crossref]
  5. Raman, Proc. Roy. Soc., p.  10164; 1922.“Molecular Diffraction of Light,” Calcutta University Press, 1922.
    [Crossref]
  6. Thorpe, “Dictionary of Applied Chemistry,” 7, p. 379; 1927. Clark, “The Data of Geochemistry,” , U. S. Geological Survey, 1924.
  7. Getman, Journ. Phys. Chem. 29, 853 (1925).
    [Crossref]
  8. Hulburt and Hutchinson, Carnegie Instit. Pub., 260; 1918.
  9. Abbott, Fowle, and Aldrich, Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution,  3, p. 197; 1913.

1926 (1)

Hulburt, J.O.S.A., & R.S.I. 13, p. 553; 1926.
[Crossref]

1925 (1)

Getman, Journ. Phys. Chem. 29, 853 (1925).
[Crossref]

1922 (2)

Raman, Proc. Roy. Soc., p.  10164; 1922.“Molecular Diffraction of Light,” Calcutta University Press, 1922.
[Crossref]

Martin, Journ. Phys. Chem.,  26, p. 471; 1922.
[Crossref]

1918 (1)

Hulburt and Hutchinson, Carnegie Instit. Pub., 260; 1918.

1913 (1)

Abbott, Fowle, and Aldrich, Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution,  3, p. 197; 1913.

1904 (1)

Aufsess, Ann. d. Phys.,  13, 1904.

1901 (1)

Kreusler, Ann. d. Phys.,  6, p. 412; 1901.
[Crossref]

Abbott,

Abbott, Fowle, and Aldrich, Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution,  3, p. 197; 1913.

Aldrich,

Abbott, Fowle, and Aldrich, Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution,  3, p. 197; 1913.

Aufsess,

Aufsess, Ann. d. Phys.,  13, 1904.

Fowle,

Abbott, Fowle, and Aldrich, Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution,  3, p. 197; 1913.

Getman,

Getman, Journ. Phys. Chem. 29, 853 (1925).
[Crossref]

Hulburt,

Hulburt, J.O.S.A., & R.S.I. 13, p. 553; 1926.
[Crossref]

Hulburt and Hutchinson, Carnegie Instit. Pub., 260; 1918.

Hutchinson,

Hulburt and Hutchinson, Carnegie Instit. Pub., 260; 1918.

Kreusler,

Kreusler, Ann. d. Phys.,  6, p. 412; 1901.
[Crossref]

Martin,

Martin, Journ. Phys. Chem.,  26, p. 471; 1922.
[Crossref]

Raman,

Raman, Proc. Roy. Soc., p.  10164; 1922.“Molecular Diffraction of Light,” Calcutta University Press, 1922.
[Crossref]

Thorpe,

Thorpe, “Dictionary of Applied Chemistry,” 7, p. 379; 1927. Clark, “The Data of Geochemistry,” , U. S. Geological Survey, 1924.

Ann. d. Phys. (2)

Aufsess, Ann. d. Phys.,  13, 1904.

Kreusler, Ann. d. Phys.,  6, p. 412; 1901.
[Crossref]

Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution (1)

Abbott, Fowle, and Aldrich, Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution,  3, p. 197; 1913.

Carnegie Instit. Pub. (1)

Hulburt and Hutchinson, Carnegie Instit. Pub., 260; 1918.

J.O.S.A., & R.S.I. (1)

Hulburt, J.O.S.A., & R.S.I. 13, p. 553; 1926.
[Crossref]

Journ. Phys. Chem. (2)

Martin, Journ. Phys. Chem.,  26, p. 471; 1922.
[Crossref]

Getman, Journ. Phys. Chem. 29, 853 (1925).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

Raman, Proc. Roy. Soc., p.  10164; 1922.“Molecular Diffraction of Light,” Calcutta University Press, 1922.
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Thorpe, “Dictionary of Applied Chemistry,” 7, p. 379; 1927. Clark, “The Data of Geochemistry,” , U. S. Geological Survey, 1924.

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Figures (5)

F. 1
F. 1

Diagram of apparatus.

F. 2
F. 2

Curves 1, 2 and 3 are the absorption coefficients α for pure water, tap water and sea water, respectively. Curve 4 is the distance light penetrates into the sea to be reduced to 1/1000th in intensity. Curve 5 is the spectral energy curve of sunlight plotted with ordinates in arbitrary units.

F. 3
F. 3

Molecular absorption coefficient A of MgSO4, KCl and NaCl in aqueous solution.

F. 4
F. 4

Molecular absorption coefficient A of MgCl2 and CaSO4 in aqueous solution. For the CaSO4 curve the ordinate scale must be multiplied by 10.

F. 5
F. 5

a and f direct mercury arc; b mercury arc through concentrated artificial sea water equivalent to 10 meters of natural sea water; c solar spectrum; d and e mercury arc through 2.07 cm and 0.15 cm, respectively, of a saturated aqueous solution of MgCl2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Value of α for water and sea water and of A for aqueous solutions of the principal salts in the sea water.

Equations (2)

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I = I 0 10 α x ,
A = ( α α 0 ) / c ,