Abstract

No abstract available.

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. HampsonThe Electrical Response of the Eye under Stimulation by Light. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  7, p. 1; 1923.
    [Crossref]
  2. E. L. Chaffee and A. HampsonEffects of varying the Wavelengths of the Stimulating Light upon the Electrical Response of the Retina. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  9, p. 1; 1924.
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Laurens and S. R. DetwilerThe Structure of the Retina of Alligator Mississippiensis and its Photomechanical Changes. J. Exp. Zool.,  32, p. 207; 1921.
    [Crossref]
  4. W. J. V. OsterhoutInjury, Recovery, and Death, Chap. II.; 1922.
  5. H. K. HartlineThe Electrical Response to Illumination of the Eye in Intact Animals, including the Human Subject, and in Decerebrate Preparations. Am. J. Physiol.,  73, p. 600; 1925.
  6. J. H. ParsonsAn Introduction to the Study of Color Vision, p. 92; 1924.

1925 (1)

H. K. HartlineThe Electrical Response to Illumination of the Eye in Intact Animals, including the Human Subject, and in Decerebrate Preparations. Am. J. Physiol.,  73, p. 600; 1925.

1924 (2)

J. H. ParsonsAn Introduction to the Study of Color Vision, p. 92; 1924.

E. L. Chaffee and A. HampsonEffects of varying the Wavelengths of the Stimulating Light upon the Electrical Response of the Retina. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  9, p. 1; 1924.
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. HampsonThe Electrical Response of the Eye under Stimulation by Light. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  7, p. 1; 1923.
[Crossref]

1921 (1)

H. Laurens and S. R. DetwilerThe Structure of the Retina of Alligator Mississippiensis and its Photomechanical Changes. J. Exp. Zool.,  32, p. 207; 1921.
[Crossref]

Bovie, W. T.

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. HampsonThe Electrical Response of the Eye under Stimulation by Light. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  7, p. 1; 1923.
[Crossref]

Chaffee, E. L.

E. L. Chaffee and A. HampsonEffects of varying the Wavelengths of the Stimulating Light upon the Electrical Response of the Retina. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  9, p. 1; 1924.
[Crossref]

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. HampsonThe Electrical Response of the Eye under Stimulation by Light. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  7, p. 1; 1923.
[Crossref]

Detwiler, S. R.

H. Laurens and S. R. DetwilerThe Structure of the Retina of Alligator Mississippiensis and its Photomechanical Changes. J. Exp. Zool.,  32, p. 207; 1921.
[Crossref]

Hampson, A.

E. L. Chaffee and A. HampsonEffects of varying the Wavelengths of the Stimulating Light upon the Electrical Response of the Retina. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  9, p. 1; 1924.
[Crossref]

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. HampsonThe Electrical Response of the Eye under Stimulation by Light. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  7, p. 1; 1923.
[Crossref]

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. HartlineThe Electrical Response to Illumination of the Eye in Intact Animals, including the Human Subject, and in Decerebrate Preparations. Am. J. Physiol.,  73, p. 600; 1925.

Laurens, H.

H. Laurens and S. R. DetwilerThe Structure of the Retina of Alligator Mississippiensis and its Photomechanical Changes. J. Exp. Zool.,  32, p. 207; 1921.
[Crossref]

Osterhout, W. J. V.

W. J. V. OsterhoutInjury, Recovery, and Death, Chap. II.; 1922.

Parsons, J. H.

J. H. ParsonsAn Introduction to the Study of Color Vision, p. 92; 1924.

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

H. K. HartlineThe Electrical Response to Illumination of the Eye in Intact Animals, including the Human Subject, and in Decerebrate Preparations. Am. J. Physiol.,  73, p. 600; 1925.

An Introduction to the Study of Color Vision (1)

J. H. ParsonsAn Introduction to the Study of Color Vision, p. 92; 1924.

J. Exp. Zool. (1)

H. Laurens and S. R. DetwilerThe Structure of the Retina of Alligator Mississippiensis and its Photomechanical Changes. J. Exp. Zool.,  32, p. 207; 1921.
[Crossref]

J.O.S.A. & R.S.I. (2)

E. L. Chaffee, W. T. Bovie, and A. HampsonThe Electrical Response of the Eye under Stimulation by Light. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  7, p. 1; 1923.
[Crossref]

E. L. Chaffee and A. HampsonEffects of varying the Wavelengths of the Stimulating Light upon the Electrical Response of the Retina. J.O.S.A. & R.S.I.,  9, p. 1; 1924.
[Crossref]

Other (1)

W. J. V. OsterhoutInjury, Recovery, and Death, Chap. II.; 1922.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normal responses for time exposures, drawn from actual curves and reduced to the same time scale; showing similarity of shape for relatively high (but not the same) intensities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normal responses for exposures of 0.04 sec., drawn to the same scale from actual curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Development of negative aspects of response curves with age or injury; curves traced from original films (not to the same scale) and arranged in order of decreasing positive on effect B: a, horned toad, 1 hour after excision; b, frog, 21 hours; c, alligator, 5 hours; d, horned toad, 3 hours; e turtle, 23 hours.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

C” rise in responses from mixed retinas; a, frog, beginning of 75 sec. exposure; b, alligator, 4 secs.; c, alligator, 0.04 sec.; d, frog, 0.04 sec.; e, alligator, 48 sec. exposure on eye 8.5 hours old at 43 meter-candles; f, alligator, 0.04 sec.; standard deflection, 0.1 millivolt.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relations between response and intensity of light for the on effect of horned toads. Linear relation between log R and log I shows in curves 2 and 4 for two different eyes, and linear relation between R and log I shows in curve 3 for one of them for the higher intensities. Throughout this work the unit of intensity is 7.7×10−6 meter-candle, and successive intensity steps are in the ratio of √2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relation between response and intensity of light for the off effect of horned toads, showing sharp drop for the highest intensities, and positions of maxima about the same for different absolute values, different exposure times, and different animals. Curve 1, horned toad No. 9, 0.6 sec. exposures; curve 2, H.T. 10, 2 secs.; curve 3, H.T. 8, 5 secs.; curve 4, H.T. 7, 10 secs.; curve 5, H.T. 7, 10 secs.; from same data as curve 4. In curves 1–4 R is plotted against log I, in curve 5 log R is used instead of R.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Double maxima for flash exposures, 0.04 sec.: a, frog response at lower and higher intensities; b, three exposures in succession for an alligator; c, turtle.

Figs. 8–10
Figs. 8–10

Superposition of “off” and “on” effects, showing importance of off effect in flash exposures. Fig. 8, horned toad, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.04 sec., negative off effect superposed upon positive on effect. Fig. 9, positive on negative; a, horned toad, 1.4, 0.5, 0.2, 0.04 sec.; b, alligator, 3.0, 0.5, 0.04 sec. Fig. 10, positive on positive; a, frog 2.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1 sec.; b, turtle, 3.0 and 0.04 sec.; c, horned toad, 5.0, 0.5, 0.2 sec.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

On effect increases faster than off effect with intensity (a–c, 1 second exposures), and first hump of flash response increases faster than second (d–f, 0.2 sec.). Horned toad.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Off effect increases at the same rate as on effect (a–b), then faster (c); correspondingly, second hump of flash response retains the same relative height (d-e), then becomes higher (f). Horned toad; a–c, 5 secs., d–f, 0.5 sec.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Third hump of flash response due to off effect, as shown by increasing exposure times at constant intensity. Frog; exposures a–d, 0.04, 0.2, 0.5, and 2.0 seconds respectively.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Double maxima of flash responses of frog (a, 0.04, b, 0.5 sec.) show in the on effect of time exposures (c, 1 sec., d, 2 secs.); e, effect of second maximum, in different frog, shows only as change of slope (5 secs.). Oscillatory responses partly due to previous exposure.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Double maxima for frog in flash and time exposures when off effect is negligible; a, 5 secs., b, 0.04, c, 5 secs.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Double maxima in the on effect: a, alligator, 3 secs.; b, turtle, 3 secs.; c, horned toad, 5 secs. In (b) there is considerable galvanometer drift, without which the second maximum would appear a little higher, relatively.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Horned toad, showing effect upon first and second maxima (A and B) of Fig. 16 c as the main curve becomes more negative with age.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Double on and off effects in turtle response.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Oscillatory responses: a, alligator, off effect; b, alligator, 0.04 sec.; c, alligator, on effect; d, frog, 0.04 sec.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Alligator, showing similarity of responses from rod and cone sides of the retina for both flash and time exposures: a, rod side, 2 secs.; b, cone side, start of 14 sec. exposure c, rod side, 0.04 sec.; d, middle, 0.04 sec.; e, cone side, 0.04 sec. Drawings.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Curves showing limits in one direction for the law of equal response for equal energy, about half a second for the smoother curves; log R plotted against log t. Numbers in parentheses indicate energy (I×t) for corresponding curves, in, meter-candle-seconds×10−4.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Abnormal shape of curve showing response to the same stimulus, for 4 hours after excision, in a case in which diffusion of zinc ions took place; normal recovery terminated by a sudden drop.