Abstract

Maurain found that the outer layers of nickel were more magnetic than the inner ones. N. H. Williams said this must lead to an increased induction in a nickel rod if it were cut into a number of sections. He found that transverse sections did increase the induction for strong fields but lowered it for weak. This paper shows that because of this effect a bundle of nickel plates will orient itself in a magnetic field differently for weak fields than for strong. A possible explanation lies in the readiness which the elementary magnets of nickel have to align themselves with a magnetizing force, particularly those in the outer layers which are not affected so much by the mutual directive forces of the elementary magnets. The increase in permeability due to mechanically sectioning nickel bars seems to indicate that somewhat analogous conditions are produced when the permeability of a substance is increased by heat treatment.

© 1925 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Maurain, Jour. de Phys.,  1, p. 151, 1902.
  2. Williams, Phys. Rev.,  33, p. 60; 1911.
  3. Ewing and Low, Phil. Mag.,  26, p. 274; 1888.
    [Crossref]
  4. Williams, School Sci. and Math.,  12, p. 489; 1912.
    [Crossref]
  5. Scoresby, “Magnetical Investigations,” 1839. Jamin, Compt Rend,  75, 76, 77 and 81; 1872-1875. Brown, Proc. Roy-Soc- Dublin,  15, p. 137; 1916.
  6. Arnold and Elmenand, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  195; May, 1923.
    [Crossref]
  7. Ross, Trans. Faraday Soc.,  8, p. 185; Oct.1912;Trans. Faraday Soc. 19, p. 1; 1913.
    [Crossref]
  8. Young, Phil. Mag., p. 291; Aug.1923.
    [Crossref]
  9. Hull, Phys. Rev.,  14, p. 540; 1919.

1923 (2)

Arnold and Elmenand, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  195; May, 1923.
[Crossref]

Young, Phil. Mag., p. 291; Aug.1923.
[Crossref]

1919 (1)

Hull, Phys. Rev.,  14, p. 540; 1919.

1912 (2)

Ross, Trans. Faraday Soc.,  8, p. 185; Oct.1912;Trans. Faraday Soc. 19, p. 1; 1913.
[Crossref]

Williams, School Sci. and Math.,  12, p. 489; 1912.
[Crossref]

1911 (1)

Williams, Phys. Rev.,  33, p. 60; 1911.

1902 (1)

Maurain, Jour. de Phys.,  1, p. 151, 1902.

1888 (1)

Ewing and Low, Phil. Mag.,  26, p. 274; 1888.
[Crossref]

Arnold,

Arnold and Elmenand, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  195; May, 1923.
[Crossref]

Elmenand,

Arnold and Elmenand, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  195; May, 1923.
[Crossref]

Ewing,

Ewing and Low, Phil. Mag.,  26, p. 274; 1888.
[Crossref]

Hull,

Hull, Phys. Rev.,  14, p. 540; 1919.

Low,

Ewing and Low, Phil. Mag.,  26, p. 274; 1888.
[Crossref]

Maurain,

Maurain, Jour. de Phys.,  1, p. 151, 1902.

Ross,

Ross, Trans. Faraday Soc.,  8, p. 185; Oct.1912;Trans. Faraday Soc. 19, p. 1; 1913.
[Crossref]

Scoresby,

Scoresby, “Magnetical Investigations,” 1839. Jamin, Compt Rend,  75, 76, 77 and 81; 1872-1875. Brown, Proc. Roy-Soc- Dublin,  15, p. 137; 1916.

Williams,

Williams, School Sci. and Math.,  12, p. 489; 1912.
[Crossref]

Williams, Phys. Rev.,  33, p. 60; 1911.

Young,

Young, Phil. Mag., p. 291; Aug.1923.
[Crossref]

Jour. de Phys. (1)

Maurain, Jour. de Phys.,  1, p. 151, 1902.

Jour. Frank. Inst. (1)

Arnold and Elmenand, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  195; May, 1923.
[Crossref]

Phil. Mag. (2)

Young, Phil. Mag., p. 291; Aug.1923.
[Crossref]

Ewing and Low, Phil. Mag.,  26, p. 274; 1888.
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (2)

Williams, Phys. Rev.,  33, p. 60; 1911.

Hull, Phys. Rev.,  14, p. 540; 1919.

School Sci. and Math. (1)

Williams, School Sci. and Math.,  12, p. 489; 1912.
[Crossref]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

Ross, Trans. Faraday Soc.,  8, p. 185; Oct.1912;Trans. Faraday Soc. 19, p. 1; 1913.
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Scoresby, “Magnetical Investigations,” 1839. Jamin, Compt Rend,  75, 76, 77 and 81; 1872-1875. Brown, Proc. Roy-Soc- Dublin,  15, p. 137; 1916.

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Figures (7)

F. 1
F. 1

Stirrup to hold nickel plates.

F. 2
F. 2

Vertical section of apparatus

F. 3
F. 3

Horizontal section of apparatus.

F. 4
F. 4

Deflections of piles of nickel plates, 1 cm square. Curve a: 10 plates, total thickness 1.148 cmCurve b: 9 plates, total thickness 1.005 cmCurve c: 9 plates, 1.224 cm, separated by paper; pressure 75 kg.

F. 5
F. 5

Deflection of a pile of 9 plates of thickness 1.031 cm under pressures of (a) 60 kg, (b) 36 kg, (c) 12 kg.

F. 6
F. 6

Deflection of a second pile of 9 plates, of thickness 1.031 cm, under pressures of (a) 75 kg, (b) 36 kg, (c) 12 kg.

F. 7
F. 7

Deflections of a pile of 9 plates, of thickness 1.034 cm (a) Diagonal set at + 10° (b) diagonal set at zero (c) diagonal set at − 10°