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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Demonstrating the possibility of three reflected rays (broken lines) entering the eye coincident with a directly transmitted ray (solid line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The three reflected rays for a negative lens. Note difference in position in comparison with the positive lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The variation in position of the five reflected images with variation in power, for symmetrical lenses. Lens powers are plotted as ordinates, the distances of the images from the vertex of the lens as abscissae. Powers and distances are in dioptries.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The variation in position of the five reflected images with variation in power, for periscopic lenses. Lens powers are plotted as ordinates, the distances of the images from the vertex of the lens as abscissae. Powers and distances are in dioptries.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The variation in position of the five reflected images with variation in power, for meniscus lenses. Lens powers are plotted as ordinates, the distances of the images from the vertex of the lens as abscissae. Powers and distances are in dioptries.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstrating the effect on the position of the images of variation in shape for a lens of constant power (−2 dptr.) The various powers of the front surface of the lens are plotted as ordinates the distances of the images from the vertex of the lens as abscissae. Powers and distances, are in dioptries.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Graphs showing the shapes of lenses of different powers for which the various images are in focus without accommodation. Ordinates are lens powers. The abscissae give the powers of the front surfaces of the lenses. All values are expressed in dioptries.

Equations (7)

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I r = ( n - 1 n + 1 ) 2 I
V = 2 n n - 1 F 1 + 2 F 2
V = - 2 F 2 n - 1
V = 2 n n - 1 F 1 + 2 F 2 - 62.5
V = - 2 F 2 n - 1 - 62.5
V = 3 n - 1 n - 1 F
F = 3 n - 1 n - 1 F