Abstract

Investigations aimed at developing methods of spectrographic quantitative analysis of the halogens and non-metals have been carried out, with emphasis on analysis for fluorine. The relative sensitivities of fluorine spectrum lines in the vacuum ultraviolet region and in the visible region were studied, and it was found that certain visible lines are, at present, more sensitive than the theoretical raies ultimes of fluorine. The greatest absolute sensitivity obtained, using a specially designed hollow cathode source, involved detection of about 0.01 microgram of fluorine, while the greatest concentrational sensitivity was slightly less than one part per million. Chlorine and sulphur were readily detected in amounts as small as 0.20 microgram and 1.0 microgram, respectively, in samples weighing 20 milligrams. Sample handling time was reduced sufficiently to permit routine analyses for these elements.

© 1947 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For a general discussion of this problem consult G. R. Harrison, “Practical possibilities in spectrographic analysis,” Metals and Alloys (November, 1936).
  2. J. Papish, L. E. Hoag, and W. E. Snee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 2, 263 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. V. Churchill, Ind. Eng. Chem. 23, 996 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. de la Roche, Bull. Soc. Chim. 45, 922 (1929).
  5. H. Moritz, Metall. Erz. 26, 247 (1929).
  6. A. Gatterer, Physik. Zeits. 33, 64 (1932).
  7. F. Klauer, Ann. d. Physik 20, 145 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. A. Konovalov and S. E. Frisch, J. Tech. Phys. (USSR) 4, 523 (1934).
  9. J. Heyes, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie A172, 95 (1935).
  10. W. Paul, Zeits. f. angew. Chemie 49, 901 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Schultes, Zeits. ver. deut. Ing. 81, 373 (1937).
  12. W. F. Meggers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 26 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Edlen, Zeits. f. Physik 92, 21 (1934);Zeits. f. Physik 94, 48 (1935);Zeits. f. Physik 98, 450 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  14. I. S. Bowen, Phys. Rev. 45, 82 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. R. Harrison, M. I. T. Wavelength Tables (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York1939).
  16. R. F. Bacher and S. Goudsmit, Atomic Energy States (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932).
  17. J. Franck, Naturwiss. 14, 211 (1926);H. Beutler and B. Josephy, Zeits. f. Physik 53, 747 (1929);H. Kallmann and F. London, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie Abt. B2, 207 (1929).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. Wigner, Göttinger Nachrichten375 (1927);H. Beutler and W. Eisenschimmel, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie Abt. B10, 89 (1930).
  19. H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Zeits. f. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. MacDonald, Thesis for the Doctorate (Boston University, June, 1944).
  21. W. W. A. Johnson and D. P. Norman, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 15, 119 (1943).
    [Crossref]

1943 (1)

W. W. A. Johnson and D. P. Norman, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 15, 119 (1943).
[Crossref]

1941 (1)

1937 (1)

W. Schultes, Zeits. ver. deut. Ing. 81, 373 (1937).

1936 (2)

W. Paul, Zeits. f. angew. Chemie 49, 901 (1936).
[Crossref]

For a general discussion of this problem consult G. R. Harrison, “Practical possibilities in spectrographic analysis,” Metals and Alloys (November, 1936).

1935 (2)

J. Heyes, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie A172, 95 (1935).

H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Zeits. f. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
[Crossref]

1934 (4)

F. Klauer, Ann. d. Physik 20, 145 (1934).
[Crossref]

V. A. Konovalov and S. E. Frisch, J. Tech. Phys. (USSR) 4, 523 (1934).

B. Edlen, Zeits. f. Physik 92, 21 (1934);Zeits. f. Physik 94, 48 (1935);Zeits. f. Physik 98, 450 (1935).
[Crossref]

I. S. Bowen, Phys. Rev. 45, 82 (1934).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

A. Gatterer, Physik. Zeits. 33, 64 (1932).

1931 (1)

H. V. Churchill, Ind. Eng. Chem. 23, 996 (1931).
[Crossref]

1930 (1)

J. Papish, L. E. Hoag, and W. E. Snee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 2, 263 (1930).
[Crossref]

1929 (2)

B. de la Roche, Bull. Soc. Chim. 45, 922 (1929).

H. Moritz, Metall. Erz. 26, 247 (1929).

1927 (1)

E. Wigner, Göttinger Nachrichten375 (1927);H. Beutler and W. Eisenschimmel, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie Abt. B10, 89 (1930).

1926 (1)

J. Franck, Naturwiss. 14, 211 (1926);H. Beutler and B. Josephy, Zeits. f. Physik 53, 747 (1929);H. Kallmann and F. London, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie Abt. B2, 207 (1929).
[Crossref]

Bacher, R. F.

R. F. Bacher and S. Goudsmit, Atomic Energy States (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932).

Bowen, I. S.

I. S. Bowen, Phys. Rev. 45, 82 (1934).
[Crossref]

Churchill, H. V.

H. V. Churchill, Ind. Eng. Chem. 23, 996 (1931).
[Crossref]

de la Roche, B.

B. de la Roche, Bull. Soc. Chim. 45, 922 (1929).

Edlen, B.

B. Edlen, Zeits. f. Physik 92, 21 (1934);Zeits. f. Physik 94, 48 (1935);Zeits. f. Physik 98, 450 (1935).
[Crossref]

Franck, J.

J. Franck, Naturwiss. 14, 211 (1926);H. Beutler and B. Josephy, Zeits. f. Physik 53, 747 (1929);H. Kallmann and F. London, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie Abt. B2, 207 (1929).
[Crossref]

Frisch, S. E.

V. A. Konovalov and S. E. Frisch, J. Tech. Phys. (USSR) 4, 523 (1934).

Gatterer, A.

A. Gatterer, Physik. Zeits. 33, 64 (1932).

Gollnow, H.

H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Zeits. f. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
[Crossref]

Goudsmit, S.

R. F. Bacher and S. Goudsmit, Atomic Energy States (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932).

Harrison, G. R.

For a general discussion of this problem consult G. R. Harrison, “Practical possibilities in spectrographic analysis,” Metals and Alloys (November, 1936).

G. R. Harrison, M. I. T. Wavelength Tables (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York1939).

Heyes, J.

J. Heyes, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie A172, 95 (1935).

Hoag, L. E.

J. Papish, L. E. Hoag, and W. E. Snee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 2, 263 (1930).
[Crossref]

Johnson, W. W. A.

W. W. A. Johnson and D. P. Norman, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 15, 119 (1943).
[Crossref]

Klauer, F.

F. Klauer, Ann. d. Physik 20, 145 (1934).
[Crossref]

Konovalov, V. A.

V. A. Konovalov and S. E. Frisch, J. Tech. Phys. (USSR) 4, 523 (1934).

MacDonald, D.

D. MacDonald, Thesis for the Doctorate (Boston University, June, 1944).

Meggers, W. F.

Moritz, H.

H. Moritz, Metall. Erz. 26, 247 (1929).

Norman, D. P.

W. W. A. Johnson and D. P. Norman, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 15, 119 (1943).
[Crossref]

Papish, J.

J. Papish, L. E. Hoag, and W. E. Snee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 2, 263 (1930).
[Crossref]

Paul, W.

W. Paul, Zeits. f. angew. Chemie 49, 901 (1936).
[Crossref]

Schüler, H.

H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Zeits. f. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
[Crossref]

Schultes, W.

W. Schultes, Zeits. ver. deut. Ing. 81, 373 (1937).

Snee, W. E.

J. Papish, L. E. Hoag, and W. E. Snee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 2, 263 (1930).
[Crossref]

Wigner, E.

E. Wigner, Göttinger Nachrichten375 (1927);H. Beutler and W. Eisenschimmel, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie Abt. B10, 89 (1930).

Ann. d. Physik (1)

F. Klauer, Ann. d. Physik 20, 145 (1934).
[Crossref]

Bull. Soc. Chim. (1)

B. de la Roche, Bull. Soc. Chim. 45, 922 (1929).

Göttinger Nachrichten (1)

E. Wigner, Göttinger Nachrichten375 (1927);H. Beutler and W. Eisenschimmel, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie Abt. B10, 89 (1930).

Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

H. V. Churchill, Ind. Eng. Chem. 23, 996 (1931).
[Crossref]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. (2)

J. Papish, L. E. Hoag, and W. E. Snee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 2, 263 (1930).
[Crossref]

W. W. A. Johnson and D. P. Norman, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 15, 119 (1943).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Tech. Phys. (USSR) (1)

V. A. Konovalov and S. E. Frisch, J. Tech. Phys. (USSR) 4, 523 (1934).

Metall. Erz. (1)

H. Moritz, Metall. Erz. 26, 247 (1929).

Metals and Alloys (1)

For a general discussion of this problem consult G. R. Harrison, “Practical possibilities in spectrographic analysis,” Metals and Alloys (November, 1936).

Naturwiss. (1)

J. Franck, Naturwiss. 14, 211 (1926);H. Beutler and B. Josephy, Zeits. f. Physik 53, 747 (1929);H. Kallmann and F. London, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie Abt. B2, 207 (1929).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

I. S. Bowen, Phys. Rev. 45, 82 (1934).
[Crossref]

Physik. Zeits. (1)

A. Gatterer, Physik. Zeits. 33, 64 (1932).

Zeits. f. angew. Chemie (1)

W. Paul, Zeits. f. angew. Chemie 49, 901 (1936).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. Physik (2)

B. Edlen, Zeits. f. Physik 92, 21 (1934);Zeits. f. Physik 94, 48 (1935);Zeits. f. Physik 98, 450 (1935).
[Crossref]

H. Schüler and H. Gollnow, Zeits. f. Physik 93, 611 (1935).
[Crossref]

Zeits. f. physik. Chemie (1)

J. Heyes, Zeits. f. physik. Chemie A172, 95 (1935).

Zeits. ver. deut. Ing. (1)

W. Schultes, Zeits. ver. deut. Ing. 81, 373 (1937).

Other (3)

D. MacDonald, Thesis for the Doctorate (Boston University, June, 1944).

G. R. Harrison, M. I. T. Wavelength Tables (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York1939).

R. F. Bacher and S. Goudsmit, Atomic Energy States (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932).

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Figures (3)

F. 1
F. 1

The disassembled hollow cathode source (the glass tube is four inches long).

F. 2
F. 2

The assembled hollow cathode source.

F. 3
F. 3

Reproduction of a moving plate spectrogram using the hollow cathode source and a twenty milligram metal-oxide sample containing 1000 parts per million of fluorine.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Strongest lines of certain first spectra.

Tables Icon

Table II Principal lines of fluorine.

Tables Icon

Table III Quasi-resonance lines of certain first spectra.