Abstract

The carriage and ways of a Moore No. 3 measuring machine were slightly modified, and to them were added monorail, diamond carriage, and suitable drive and gearing. When placed under interferometric control, the resulting ruling engine produces excellent gratings of previously unattained dimensions. A stabilized laser removes cumulative and periodic screw errors through blank translation control, and through yaw control eliminates fanning that otherwise would result from way curvature. Blanks up to 260×430 mm can be ruled. A number of echelles in sizes up to 210×410 mm (8×16 in.) have been ruled on this B engine at spacings of 10 fringes (316 grooves/mm) and 40 fringes, and at blaze angles from 62° to 79°. Many of these show the high resolving power and freedom from both error of run and Rowland-ghosts characteristic of echelles from the M.I.T. A engine, with satellites, ghosts of all types, and scattered light reduced further in intensity by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Still larger gratings are being ruled on the M.I.T. C engine, of capacity 450×635 mm, based on a Moore No. 4 measuring machine, which is now being improved from grating to echelle ruling quality.

© 1970 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. R. Harrison and J. E. Archer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 495 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. R. Harrison and G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 112 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. R. Harrison, N. Sturgis, S. C. Baker, and G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 15 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. R. Harrison, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 102, 483 (1958).
  5. G. R. Harrison, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 422 (1949).
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  7. Reference 2, p. 114.
  8. Reference 3, p. 17.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. Reference 1, p. 498.
  12. Reference 2, p. 115.
  13. Reference 1, p. 502.
  14. Reference 3, p. 21.
  15. Because concave gratings were originally ruled on circular blanks, and the standard “6-in. grating” was measured in terms of blank diameter, spectroscopists have long used the diagonal as indicating grating size. On this basis our 250×410-mm ruled areas are “18-in. gratings.”
  16. G. R. Harrison, S. P. Davis, and H. J. Robertson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 853 (1953).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. J. V. Kline and D. W. Steinhaus, Appl. Opt. 7, 2015 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

1965 (1)

1962 (1)

1960 (1)

G. R. Harrison and G. W. Stroke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1155 (1960).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

G. R. Harrison, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 102, 483 (1958).

1957 (2)

1955 (1)

1953 (1)

1951 (1)

1949 (1)

G. R. Harrison, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 422 (1949).

Archer, J. E.

Babcock, H. W.

Baker, S. C.

Davis, S. P.

Harrison, G. R.

Hollinger, A. G.

Horsfield, W. R.

Hynd, J. W.

Keith Pierce, A.

Kline, J. V.

Rank, D. H.

Robertson, H. J.

Steinhaus, D. W.

Stroke, G. W.

Sturgis, N.

Wiggins, T. A.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. (1)

G. R. Harrison, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 102, 483 (1958).

Other (8)

Reference 1, p. 498.

Reference 2, p. 114.

Reference 3, p. 17.

Reference 1, p. 498.

Reference 2, p. 115.

Reference 1, p. 502.

Reference 3, p. 21.

Because concave gratings were originally ruled on circular blanks, and the standard “6-in. grating” was measured in terms of blank diameter, spectroscopists have long used the diagonal as indicating grating size. On this basis our 250×410-mm ruled areas are “18-in. gratings.”

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Front view of the B engine with its case open for loading. The ruling tool hangs from the diamond carriage D, which slides on monorail O. Two diamond carriages and monorails, separated by 200 mm, are provided of which one has been removed for clarity. Groove straightness over distances up to 260 mm is provided by fused-quartz straight edge Q. Motion of the blank B, mounted on leveling table T, yaw-correction table Y, and blank carriage C, is monitored by fringes picked up by photomultipliers P. The fringes are produced by two Michelson interferometers using common mirrors which monitor translation and yaw, respectively. Light from a Spectra-Physics # 119 laser in housing L (6328 Å) compares the excursions of the two ends of the moving bar mirror relative to fixed bar mirror M2. The diamond is raised and lowered electromagnetically.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

View of the B-engine drive. Vented hood H covers the 3 4-hp dc drive motor, connected through several vibration-reducing countershafts with cloth belts to flywheel W1. Through a 40:1 reduction this turns shaft S1, which is connected 1:1 through a timer belt to flywheels W2 and W3. The shaft holding W1 drives the engine screw and the comparison signal generator, which reveals instantaneous diamond position through the gear system shown in Fig. 3. Flywheels W2 and W3 cause reciprocation of the pushrods P, whose motion is rectified by cam C, on which moves arm A, to give uniform rectilinear motion of antitorque carriages moving in V ways, and finally the diamond carriage. One set of pushrods has been disconnected for this photograph.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of gear connections between drive motor H, diamond carriage D1, engine screw S, and comparison-signal generator G. The pressure correction, fed from a barometrically controlled servo through differential Dp into the generator arm, increases the number of fringes per groove as the wavelength decreases. The phase correction is fed from the circuits matching the blank and diamond signals through differential Dϕ into the blank-carriage arm when one or the other signal needs advancing. Groove spacing can be changed by altering gear ratios in the diamond-drive arm at M.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chart recordings of the translation (b) and yaw (a) corrections called for in four turns of the engine screw, which has 2.54-mm lead. The periodic error varies between 10 and 50 centifringes along the length of the screw.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity traces, comparing satellite structures near the mercury green line from an 202Hg lamp in the eleventh order of two echelles showing moderate (0.07% for B-017) and faint satellite intensities (0.008% for B-033). Distortions on the sides of the parent line are from isotope impurities in the lamp.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of satellite positions and intensities between the ninth and tenth orders of echelles A-195 and B-013. The satellites are much weaker in the latter, the strongest being down by a factor of 10, and their total intensity by more than 100. Some later echelles ruled on the B engine show even fainter satellite intensities.