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(a) Typical step-spectrum taken with one of the discontinuous variation auto-calibration methods; (b) Typical wedge-spectrum taken with one of the continuous variation auto-calibration methods.
(a) Typical step-sector disk for high speed rotation directly in front of the slit of a stigmatic spectrograph to produce spectrograms as in Fig. 1 (a). (b) Typical logarithmic sector disk for use in producing wedge spectra as in Fig. 1 (b).
Typical set of calibration curves for the various steps of a platinum-on-quartz step-weakener.
Convenient shape of a wedge-slit to produce wedge-spectra with a continuous source.
Common form of radial diaphragm with variable aperture for use with prism instruments.
Typical set of eye-match spectrograms as used in absorption spectrophotometry. (Courtesy Adam Hilger, Ltd.)
Notched echelon and plain echelon cells, the first to contain the absorbing solution, and the second to contain the solvent and act as control in the Hilger notched echelon cell method of absorption photometry. (Courtesy Adam Hilger, Ltd.)
A typical three-dimensional graph connecting density, log intensity, and wave-length, to illustrate the fundamental principles of heterochromatic photometry. A calibration curve for a particular wave-length is being fitted into the three-dimensional graph by means of the standardization spectrum.
Table I Methods of imposing intensity calibration marks on photometric plates.