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  1. To Dr. Lutz is to be given credit for the organization of the Committee, for planning the field work for the summer of 1922, and for valuable suggestions concerning the investigation herein reported. F. K. R.
  2. To this Fund the writer acknowledges, with thanks, his indebtedness for an appropriation to cover certain necessary supplies, and a portion of his expenses.
  3. A very large number of papers—one authority states 5000—has been written on the vision of insects and its relation to flowers. The following references, kindly furnished to the writer by Dr. Lutz, are representative and will serve as an introduction to the rather extensive literature on the subject:John Lubbock: “On the Senses, Instincts, and Intelligence of Animals, with special Reference to Insects.”Appleton and Company (New York). 1888.C. Hess: “Gesichtssinn” in Winterstein’s “Handbuch der vergleichender Physiologie.” 4. (Gives bibliography); 1913.Reinhard Demoll: “Die Sinnesorgane der Arthropoden, ihr Bau und ihre Funktion.” Vieweg and Sohn. (Braunschweig), 239 pp., including bibliography; 1917.H. Eltringham: “Butterfly Vision.” Trans. Entomological Soc. London, pp. 1–49; 1919.v. K. Frisch: “Über der Geruchsinn der Bien und seine blutenbiologische Bedeutung.” Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. Allg. Zool. Physiol. 37, pp. 1–238; 1919. (Gives bibliography of experiments on color-vision also.)A. Kühn and R. Pohl: “Dressurfähigkeit der Bienen auf Spektrallinien.” Die Naturwissenschaften,  37, pp. 738–740; 1921.
    [Crossref]
  4. “Dressurfähigkeit der Bienen auf Spektrallinien.” Naturwissenschaften,  9, p. 738; 1921.
    [Crossref]
  5. Science,  55, p. 519; 1922.
  6. The writer is indebted to Mrs. Richtmyer for much assistance in locating, obtaining and identifying a number of the flowers studied. Similar acknowledgment is also made to Dr. Lutz and Mr. Jackson.

1922 (1)

Science,  55, p. 519; 1922.

1921 (1)

“Dressurfähigkeit der Bienen auf Spektrallinien.” Naturwissenschaften,  9, p. 738; 1921.
[Crossref]

Lubbock, John

A very large number of papers—one authority states 5000—has been written on the vision of insects and its relation to flowers. The following references, kindly furnished to the writer by Dr. Lutz, are representative and will serve as an introduction to the rather extensive literature on the subject:John Lubbock: “On the Senses, Instincts, and Intelligence of Animals, with special Reference to Insects.”Appleton and Company (New York). 1888.C. Hess: “Gesichtssinn” in Winterstein’s “Handbuch der vergleichender Physiologie.” 4. (Gives bibliography); 1913.Reinhard Demoll: “Die Sinnesorgane der Arthropoden, ihr Bau und ihre Funktion.” Vieweg and Sohn. (Braunschweig), 239 pp., including bibliography; 1917.H. Eltringham: “Butterfly Vision.” Trans. Entomological Soc. London, pp. 1–49; 1919.v. K. Frisch: “Über der Geruchsinn der Bien und seine blutenbiologische Bedeutung.” Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. Allg. Zool. Physiol. 37, pp. 1–238; 1919. (Gives bibliography of experiments on color-vision also.)A. Kühn and R. Pohl: “Dressurfähigkeit der Bienen auf Spektrallinien.” Die Naturwissenschaften,  37, pp. 738–740; 1921.
[Crossref]

Naturwissenschaften (1)

“Dressurfähigkeit der Bienen auf Spektrallinien.” Naturwissenschaften,  9, p. 738; 1921.
[Crossref]

Science (1)

Science,  55, p. 519; 1922.

Other (4)

The writer is indebted to Mrs. Richtmyer for much assistance in locating, obtaining and identifying a number of the flowers studied. Similar acknowledgment is also made to Dr. Lutz and Mr. Jackson.

To Dr. Lutz is to be given credit for the organization of the Committee, for planning the field work for the summer of 1922, and for valuable suggestions concerning the investigation herein reported. F. K. R.

To this Fund the writer acknowledges, with thanks, his indebtedness for an appropriation to cover certain necessary supplies, and a portion of his expenses.

A very large number of papers—one authority states 5000—has been written on the vision of insects and its relation to flowers. The following references, kindly furnished to the writer by Dr. Lutz, are representative and will serve as an introduction to the rather extensive literature on the subject:John Lubbock: “On the Senses, Instincts, and Intelligence of Animals, with special Reference to Insects.”Appleton and Company (New York). 1888.C. Hess: “Gesichtssinn” in Winterstein’s “Handbuch der vergleichender Physiologie.” 4. (Gives bibliography); 1913.Reinhard Demoll: “Die Sinnesorgane der Arthropoden, ihr Bau und ihre Funktion.” Vieweg and Sohn. (Braunschweig), 239 pp., including bibliography; 1917.H. Eltringham: “Butterfly Vision.” Trans. Entomological Soc. London, pp. 1–49; 1919.v. K. Frisch: “Über der Geruchsinn der Bien und seine blutenbiologische Bedeutung.” Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. Allg. Zool. Physiol. 37, pp. 1–238; 1919. (Gives bibliography of experiments on color-vision also.)A. Kühn and R. Pohl: “Dressurfähigkeit der Bienen auf Spektrallinien.” Die Naturwissenschaften,  37, pp. 738–740; 1921.
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrating the method of taking and working up data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A. Monarda fistulosa. Horse mint. (rose purple.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A. Geranium caespitosum. Wild geranium. (purplish pink.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A.Ratibida columnaris. Cone flower. (yellow.)C.Helianthus annuus. Wild sunflower. (yellow.)
B.Rudbeckia Laciniata. Wild golden glow. (yellow.)(1) Base of petal
(1) Base of petal(2) Tip of petal
(2) Tip of petal(3) Center. (dark brown.)
(3) Leaf.
D. Helianthus (cultivated). (rich maroon.)
E. Grindelia squarrosa. Gumweed.
(1) Petals. (yellow.)
(2) Center. (orange yellow.)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A. Petalostemon compactus. Prairie clover. (white.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A. Eriogonum umbellatum. (sulphur yellow.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Althaea rosea. Hollyhock.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Showing the difference in ultraviolet reflection of flowers.