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Corrections

, "Correction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 505-505 (1920)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-4-6-505

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  1. Color is the sensation due to stimulation of the optic nerve.The “adequate stimulus” of color is light.Light (luminosity, luminous flux) is radiant power multiplied by the visibility of the radiant power in question. (Radiant power is the time rate of transfer of radiant energy.)Relative visibility (function of wave‐lenght)≡Vλ≡PV maxPλwhere PV max is radiant power of the wave-length which requires a minimum of power to excite a given brilliance (brightness); Pλ is radiant power of wavelength, λ; and P V max and Pλ excite colors of equal brilliance.By introspective analysis, color is found to possess three characteristics, the specification of which completely describes the color. These are: hue, saturation, brilliance (brightness). Hue and saturation are determined by the spectral distribution of the stimulus. It is convenient to designate as quality, the property of color determined by hue and saturation together. Brilliance is determined by the amount of the stimulus. In so far as it is permissible to ascribe quantitative significance to it, brilliance may be regarded as proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus. (Fechner’s Law.)(For further discussion of definitions, and bibliography of same, see Priest, Op. Soc. of Am., Com. on Standards and Nomenclature, Sub-com. on Colorimetry, Report, 1919 (Preliminary Draft), Bureau of Standards Library, Washington.)The discussion in this present paper assumes brightness levels above the Purkinje effect.
  2. The manner of treatment followed in this paper is perhaps vaguely foreshadowed by the work of Isaac Newton (Optics, London, 1730, 4th Ed., pp. 134 to 141),and H. Grassman (Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung, Pogg. Ann. 89, pp. 69–84; 1853:Ges. Werke, Leipzig, 1904, Vol. 2, part 2, pp. 161–173).It is obvious, however, on consideration of the nature of the data dealt with in the present paper, that the similarity of treatment can be only of the most general nature, for such quantitative data were necessarily entirely lacking to these early investigators. In modern works the closest approaches which the author has found to the problem are given by Parsons, “Introduction to the Study of Color Vision,” Cambridge, 1915, Part i, Sec. ii, Chap. iii;H. E. Ives, “The Transformation of Color Mixture Equations,” Jour. Frank. Inst., Dec.1915, pp. 673–701;and Luckiesh, “The Physical Basis of Color Technology,” Jour. Frank. Inst., July and August, 1917.
    [Crossref]
  3. Report to Chas. Bittinger on , June, 1920.
  4. Diro Kitao, Zur Farbenlehre, Inaug. Dis., Goettingen1878,and Abh. Zur Farbenlehre, Inaug. Dis.Tokio University, No. 12, 1885; Koenig, Ann. der Phy.,  17, pp. 990–1008, 1882; Brodhun, Ann. der Phy.,  34, pp. 897–918, 1888; Priest, “A New Study of the Leucoscope,” forthcoming paper in Jour. of Optical Soc. of America.
    [Crossref]
  5. Leo Arons, Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, pp. 545–568, 1912; Priest, Pro. Soc. Cot. Prod. Analysts, May, 1914. (There are several serious misprints.) Priest, “The Application of Rotatory Dispersion to Colorimetry,” Phy. Rev. (2),  15, pp. 538, 539, 1920;and forthcoming paper, Jour. Optical Soc. of America..
    [Crossref]
  6. For other graphs of absorption spectra see: Priest, “Color of Soya Bean Oil,” Chemists’ Section, Cotton Oil Press, Jan., 1920; Priest, Mc-Nicholas, and Frehafer, “The Color and Spectral Transmissivity of Vegetable Oils and An Examination of the Lovibond Color Scale,” forthcoming papers, Cotton Oil Press and B. S. Tech. Pap.
  7. Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, 1918, Fig. 1, open circles.
  8. Phil. Mag., Dec., 1912, p. 859.
  9. Astrop. Jour.,  48, p. 87, 1918.
  10. B. S. Sci. Pap.303, Table 5.
  11. By means of an Amsler planimeter, making several check determinations. In nearly all cases, check determinations have been made by different operators in order to avoid blunders. In a few cases, check determinations have also been made by mechanical balancing on a knife edge. The final results obtained are accurate to about 0.5 millimicron.
  12. The generality of this conclusion is, of course, limited by the extent of the data considered. The reader will note, however, the diversity of the data, including the confirmatory data on monochromatic analysis in the latter part of this paper. The converse of this proposition is not necessarily true; two spectral distributions of light may have the same wavelength of centre of gravity and not excite colors of the same quality if the lights in the two cases are distributed over different ranges of wave-length. In order that they may excite colors of the same quality another condition must be satisfied. Further study is being given to the formulation of this condition.
  13. Steindler, Wien. Sits. 115, 2 A., p. 39, 1906; Nutting, Bull. B. S. 6, pp. 89–93, 1909.(The decimal point in the tabulated values column 2, Table II, is one place too far to right.) Jones, Jour. Optical Soc. of America,  1, pp. 63–77, 1917.
    [Crossref]
  14. Nutting, Bull. B. S. 9, p. 1, 1913.
    [Crossref]
  15. Op. Soc. of Am., Com. on Standards and Nomenclature, Sub-com. on Colorimetry, Report, 1919 (Preliminary Draft), pp. 28 and 38. Copy in Bur. Stands. Library, Washington.
  16. Page 397.
  17. L. A. Jones, I. E. S. 9, p. 691, 1914.
  18. Hyde and Forsythe, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353, 354, 1917.
    [Crossref]
  19. Wesson, Cotton Oil Press, Chemists’ Section, Table I, p. 66, July, 1920.

1920 (2)

For other graphs of absorption spectra see: Priest, “Color of Soya Bean Oil,” Chemists’ Section, Cotton Oil Press, Jan., 1920; Priest, Mc-Nicholas, and Frehafer, “The Color and Spectral Transmissivity of Vegetable Oils and An Examination of the Lovibond Color Scale,” forthcoming papers, Cotton Oil Press and B. S. Tech. Pap.

Wesson, Cotton Oil Press, Chemists’ Section, Table I, p. 66, July, 1920.

1918 (2)

Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, 1918, Fig. 1, open circles.

Astrop. Jour.,  48, p. 87, 1918.

1917 (1)

Hyde and Forsythe, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353, 354, 1917.
[Crossref]

1914 (1)

L. A. Jones, I. E. S. 9, p. 691, 1914.

1913 (1)

Nutting, Bull. B. S. 9, p. 1, 1913.
[Crossref]

1912 (2)

Leo Arons, Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, pp. 545–568, 1912; Priest, Pro. Soc. Cot. Prod. Analysts, May, 1914. (There are several serious misprints.) Priest, “The Application of Rotatory Dispersion to Colorimetry,” Phy. Rev. (2),  15, pp. 538, 539, 1920;and forthcoming paper, Jour. Optical Soc. of America..
[Crossref]

Phil. Mag., Dec., 1912, p. 859.

1906 (1)

Steindler, Wien. Sits. 115, 2 A., p. 39, 1906; Nutting, Bull. B. S. 6, pp. 89–93, 1909.(The decimal point in the tabulated values column 2, Table II, is one place too far to right.) Jones, Jour. Optical Soc. of America,  1, pp. 63–77, 1917.
[Crossref]

Arons, Leo

Leo Arons, Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, pp. 545–568, 1912; Priest, Pro. Soc. Cot. Prod. Analysts, May, 1914. (There are several serious misprints.) Priest, “The Application of Rotatory Dispersion to Colorimetry,” Phy. Rev. (2),  15, pp. 538, 539, 1920;and forthcoming paper, Jour. Optical Soc. of America..
[Crossref]

Bittinger, Chas.

Report to Chas. Bittinger on , June, 1920.

Forsythe,

Hyde and Forsythe, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353, 354, 1917.
[Crossref]

Hyde,

Hyde and Forsythe, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353, 354, 1917.
[Crossref]

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones, I. E. S. 9, p. 691, 1914.

Kitao, Diro

Diro Kitao, Zur Farbenlehre, Inaug. Dis., Goettingen1878,and Abh. Zur Farbenlehre, Inaug. Dis.Tokio University, No. 12, 1885; Koenig, Ann. der Phy.,  17, pp. 990–1008, 1882; Brodhun, Ann. der Phy.,  34, pp. 897–918, 1888; Priest, “A New Study of the Leucoscope,” forthcoming paper in Jour. of Optical Soc. of America.
[Crossref]

Newton, Isaac

The manner of treatment followed in this paper is perhaps vaguely foreshadowed by the work of Isaac Newton (Optics, London, 1730, 4th Ed., pp. 134 to 141),and H. Grassman (Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung, Pogg. Ann. 89, pp. 69–84; 1853:Ges. Werke, Leipzig, 1904, Vol. 2, part 2, pp. 161–173).It is obvious, however, on consideration of the nature of the data dealt with in the present paper, that the similarity of treatment can be only of the most general nature, for such quantitative data were necessarily entirely lacking to these early investigators. In modern works the closest approaches which the author has found to the problem are given by Parsons, “Introduction to the Study of Color Vision,” Cambridge, 1915, Part i, Sec. ii, Chap. iii;H. E. Ives, “The Transformation of Color Mixture Equations,” Jour. Frank. Inst., Dec.1915, pp. 673–701;and Luckiesh, “The Physical Basis of Color Technology,” Jour. Frank. Inst., July and August, 1917.
[Crossref]

Nutting,

Nutting, Bull. B. S. 9, p. 1, 1913.
[Crossref]

Priest,

For other graphs of absorption spectra see: Priest, “Color of Soya Bean Oil,” Chemists’ Section, Cotton Oil Press, Jan., 1920; Priest, Mc-Nicholas, and Frehafer, “The Color and Spectral Transmissivity of Vegetable Oils and An Examination of the Lovibond Color Scale,” forthcoming papers, Cotton Oil Press and B. S. Tech. Pap.

Color is the sensation due to stimulation of the optic nerve.The “adequate stimulus” of color is light.Light (luminosity, luminous flux) is radiant power multiplied by the visibility of the radiant power in question. (Radiant power is the time rate of transfer of radiant energy.)Relative visibility (function of wave‐lenght)≡Vλ≡PV maxPλwhere PV max is radiant power of the wave-length which requires a minimum of power to excite a given brilliance (brightness); Pλ is radiant power of wavelength, λ; and P V max and Pλ excite colors of equal brilliance.By introspective analysis, color is found to possess three characteristics, the specification of which completely describes the color. These are: hue, saturation, brilliance (brightness). Hue and saturation are determined by the spectral distribution of the stimulus. It is convenient to designate as quality, the property of color determined by hue and saturation together. Brilliance is determined by the amount of the stimulus. In so far as it is permissible to ascribe quantitative significance to it, brilliance may be regarded as proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus. (Fechner’s Law.)(For further discussion of definitions, and bibliography of same, see Priest, Op. Soc. of Am., Com. on Standards and Nomenclature, Sub-com. on Colorimetry, Report, 1919 (Preliminary Draft), Bureau of Standards Library, Washington.)The discussion in this present paper assumes brightness levels above the Purkinje effect.

Steindler,

Steindler, Wien. Sits. 115, 2 A., p. 39, 1906; Nutting, Bull. B. S. 6, pp. 89–93, 1909.(The decimal point in the tabulated values column 2, Table II, is one place too far to right.) Jones, Jour. Optical Soc. of America,  1, pp. 63–77, 1917.
[Crossref]

Wesson,

Wesson, Cotton Oil Press, Chemists’ Section, Table I, p. 66, July, 1920.

Ann. der Phy. (1)

Leo Arons, Ann. der Phy. (4),  39, pp. 545–568, 1912; Priest, Pro. Soc. Cot. Prod. Analysts, May, 1914. (There are several serious misprints.) Priest, “The Application of Rotatory Dispersion to Colorimetry,” Phy. Rev. (2),  15, pp. 538, 539, 1920;and forthcoming paper, Jour. Optical Soc. of America..
[Crossref]

Astrop. Jour. (1)

Astrop. Jour.,  48, p. 87, 1918.

B. S. Sci. Pap. (1)

B. S. Sci. Pap.303, Table 5.

Bull. B. S. (1)

Nutting, Bull. B. S. 9, p. 1, 1913.
[Crossref]

Cotton Oil Press (2)

For other graphs of absorption spectra see: Priest, “Color of Soya Bean Oil,” Chemists’ Section, Cotton Oil Press, Jan., 1920; Priest, Mc-Nicholas, and Frehafer, “The Color and Spectral Transmissivity of Vegetable Oils and An Examination of the Lovibond Color Scale,” forthcoming papers, Cotton Oil Press and B. S. Tech. Pap.

Wesson, Cotton Oil Press, Chemists’ Section, Table I, p. 66, July, 1920.

I. E. S. (1)

L. A. Jones, I. E. S. 9, p. 691, 1914.

Jour. Frank. Inst. (1)

Hyde and Forsythe, Jour. Frank. Inst.,  183, pp. 353, 354, 1917.
[Crossref]

Phil. Mag. (1)

Phil. Mag., Dec., 1912, p. 859.

Phy. Rev. (1)

Phy. Rev. (2),  11, p. 502, 1918, Fig. 1, open circles.

Wien. Sits. (1)

Steindler, Wien. Sits. 115, 2 A., p. 39, 1906; Nutting, Bull. B. S. 6, pp. 89–93, 1909.(The decimal point in the tabulated values column 2, Table II, is one place too far to right.) Jones, Jour. Optical Soc. of America,  1, pp. 63–77, 1917.
[Crossref]

Other (8)

Op. Soc. of Am., Com. on Standards and Nomenclature, Sub-com. on Colorimetry, Report, 1919 (Preliminary Draft), pp. 28 and 38. Copy in Bur. Stands. Library, Washington.

Page 397.

By means of an Amsler planimeter, making several check determinations. In nearly all cases, check determinations have been made by different operators in order to avoid blunders. In a few cases, check determinations have also been made by mechanical balancing on a knife edge. The final results obtained are accurate to about 0.5 millimicron.

The generality of this conclusion is, of course, limited by the extent of the data considered. The reader will note, however, the diversity of the data, including the confirmatory data on monochromatic analysis in the latter part of this paper. The converse of this proposition is not necessarily true; two spectral distributions of light may have the same wavelength of centre of gravity and not excite colors of the same quality if the lights in the two cases are distributed over different ranges of wave-length. In order that they may excite colors of the same quality another condition must be satisfied. Further study is being given to the formulation of this condition.

Color is the sensation due to stimulation of the optic nerve.The “adequate stimulus” of color is light.Light (luminosity, luminous flux) is radiant power multiplied by the visibility of the radiant power in question. (Radiant power is the time rate of transfer of radiant energy.)Relative visibility (function of wave‐lenght)≡Vλ≡PV maxPλwhere PV max is radiant power of the wave-length which requires a minimum of power to excite a given brilliance (brightness); Pλ is radiant power of wavelength, λ; and P V max and Pλ excite colors of equal brilliance.By introspective analysis, color is found to possess three characteristics, the specification of which completely describes the color. These are: hue, saturation, brilliance (brightness). Hue and saturation are determined by the spectral distribution of the stimulus. It is convenient to designate as quality, the property of color determined by hue and saturation together. Brilliance is determined by the amount of the stimulus. In so far as it is permissible to ascribe quantitative significance to it, brilliance may be regarded as proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus. (Fechner’s Law.)(For further discussion of definitions, and bibliography of same, see Priest, Op. Soc. of Am., Com. on Standards and Nomenclature, Sub-com. on Colorimetry, Report, 1919 (Preliminary Draft), Bureau of Standards Library, Washington.)The discussion in this present paper assumes brightness levels above the Purkinje effect.

The manner of treatment followed in this paper is perhaps vaguely foreshadowed by the work of Isaac Newton (Optics, London, 1730, 4th Ed., pp. 134 to 141),and H. Grassman (Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung, Pogg. Ann. 89, pp. 69–84; 1853:Ges. Werke, Leipzig, 1904, Vol. 2, part 2, pp. 161–173).It is obvious, however, on consideration of the nature of the data dealt with in the present paper, that the similarity of treatment can be only of the most general nature, for such quantitative data were necessarily entirely lacking to these early investigators. In modern works the closest approaches which the author has found to the problem are given by Parsons, “Introduction to the Study of Color Vision,” Cambridge, 1915, Part i, Sec. ii, Chap. iii;H. E. Ives, “The Transformation of Color Mixture Equations,” Jour. Frank. Inst., Dec.1915, pp. 673–701;and Luckiesh, “The Physical Basis of Color Technology,” Jour. Frank. Inst., July and August, 1917.
[Crossref]

Report to Chas. Bittinger on , June, 1920.

Diro Kitao, Zur Farbenlehre, Inaug. Dis., Goettingen1878,and Abh. Zur Farbenlehre, Inaug. Dis.Tokio University, No. 12, 1885; Koenig, Ann. der Phy.,  17, pp. 990–1008, 1882; Brodhun, Ann. der Phy.,  34, pp. 897–918, 1888; Priest, “A New Study of the Leucoscope,” forthcoming paper in Jour. of Optical Soc. of America.
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

F. 3
F. 3

Note.—The lower curves represent the product:—reflection × sunlight × visibility. The higher curves are this same product reduced to 100 at the maximum.

F. 4
F. 4

Note.—The lower curves represent the product:—reflection × sunlight × visibility,. The higher curves are this same product reduced to 100 at the maximum.

F. 5
F. 5

Note.—The lower curves represent the product:—reflection × sunlight × visibility. The higher curves are this same product reduced to 100 at the maximum.

F. 6
F. 6

Note.—The lower curves represent the product:—reflection × sunlight × visibility The higher curves are this same product reduced to 100 at the maximum.

F. 7
F. 7

Note.—The lower curves represent the product;—reflection × sunlight × visibility. The higher curves are this same product reduced to 100 at the maximum.

F. 8
F. 8

Note—The lower curves represent the product:—reflection × sunlight × visibility. The higher curves are this same product reduced to 100 at the maximum.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Bitlinger’s Paints.

Tables Icon

Table III Oil, Glasses and Rotatory Dispersion (Arons Chromoscope).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ c = Λ 1 Λ + λ cs 1 s 1 Λ + 1 s
λ c = Π Λ + λ cs ( 1 Π ) .
Relative visibility ( function of wave‐lenght ) V λ P V max P λ