Abstract

For a moving observer it is essential to foresee the locomotor course with respect to structures in the environment. Optical flows that are available to a moving observer contain powerful information for visual kinesthesis. In general, optical flows consist of separable translational and rotational components. The information examined here is contained completely in the translational component and its time derivatives. Curved paths of observation are specified by different orientations of the translational components of optical velocity and acceleration fields. Obstacles and their temporal separation from a curvilinearly moving observer are specified in the optical flow, as is the angle of collision.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Gibson, "Ecological optics," Vis. Res. 1, 253–262 (1961).
  2. J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1955).
  3. J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1979).
  4. D. N. Lee, "The functions of vision," in Modes of Perceiving and Processing Information, H. Pick and E. Salzmann, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.Y., 1978).
  5. H. C. Longuet-Higgins and K. Prazdny, "The interpretation of a moving retinal image," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 208, 385–397 (1980).
  6. J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).
  7. J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Local structure of movement parallax of the plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 717–723 (1976).
  8. J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Visual perception of rigidity of solid shape," J. Math. Biol. 3, 79–85 (1976).
  9. W. F. Clocksin, "Perception of surface slant and edge labels from optical flow: a computational approach," Percept. 9, 253–269 (1980).
  10. J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Exterospecific component of the motion parallax field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 953–956 (1981).
  11. D. N. Lee, "Visual information during locomotion," in Perception: Essays in Honor of J. J. Gibson, R. McLeod and H. Pick, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.Y., 1974).
  12. D. N. Lee, "A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision," Percept. 5, 437–459 (1976).
  13. K. Prazdny, "Determining the instantaneous direction of motion from optical flow generated by a curvilinearly moving observer," Comput. Graphics Image Process. 17, 238–248 (1981).
  14. E. T. Whittaker, A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies (Dover, New York, 1944).
  15. We call possible locations of an observer's eye in the environment the points of observation and a continuous curve connecting such points a path of observation.
  16. B. K. P. Horn and B. G. Schunck, "Determining optical flow," Artif. Intell. 17, 185–203 (1981).

1981 (3)

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Exterospecific component of the motion parallax field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 953–956 (1981).

K. Prazdny, "Determining the instantaneous direction of motion from optical flow generated by a curvilinearly moving observer," Comput. Graphics Image Process. 17, 238–248 (1981).

B. K. P. Horn and B. G. Schunck, "Determining optical flow," Artif. Intell. 17, 185–203 (1981).

1980 (2)

W. F. Clocksin, "Perception of surface slant and edge labels from optical flow: a computational approach," Percept. 9, 253–269 (1980).

H. C. Longuet-Higgins and K. Prazdny, "The interpretation of a moving retinal image," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 208, 385–397 (1980).

1976 (3)

D. N. Lee, "A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision," Percept. 5, 437–459 (1976).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Local structure of movement parallax of the plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 717–723 (1976).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Visual perception of rigidity of solid shape," J. Math. Biol. 3, 79–85 (1976).

1975 (1)

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).

1961 (1)

J. J. Gibson, "Ecological optics," Vis. Res. 1, 253–262 (1961).

1955 (1)

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1955).

Clocksin, W. F.

W. F. Clocksin, "Perception of surface slant and edge labels from optical flow: a computational approach," Percept. 9, 253–269 (1980).

Gibson, J. J.

J. J. Gibson, "Ecological optics," Vis. Res. 1, 253–262 (1961).

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1955).

J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1979).

Horn, B. K. P.

B. K. P. Horn and B. G. Schunck, "Determining optical flow," Artif. Intell. 17, 185–203 (1981).

Koenderink, J. J.

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Exterospecific component of the motion parallax field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 953–956 (1981).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Local structure of movement parallax of the plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 717–723 (1976).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Visual perception of rigidity of solid shape," J. Math. Biol. 3, 79–85 (1976).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).

Lee, D. N.

D. N. Lee, "A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision," Percept. 5, 437–459 (1976).

D. N. Lee, "Visual information during locomotion," in Perception: Essays in Honor of J. J. Gibson, R. McLeod and H. Pick, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.Y., 1974).

D. N. Lee, "The functions of vision," in Modes of Perceiving and Processing Information, H. Pick and E. Salzmann, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.Y., 1978).

Longuet-Higgins, H. C.

H. C. Longuet-Higgins and K. Prazdny, "The interpretation of a moving retinal image," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 208, 385–397 (1980).

Olum, P.

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1955).

Prazdny, K.

K. Prazdny, "Determining the instantaneous direction of motion from optical flow generated by a curvilinearly moving observer," Comput. Graphics Image Process. 17, 238–248 (1981).

H. C. Longuet-Higgins and K. Prazdny, "The interpretation of a moving retinal image," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 208, 385–397 (1980).

Rosenblatt, F.

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1955).

Schunck, B. G.

B. K. P. Horn and B. G. Schunck, "Determining optical flow," Artif. Intell. 17, 185–203 (1981).

van Doorn, A. J.

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Local structure of movement parallax of the plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 717–723 (1976).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Visual perception of rigidity of solid shape," J. Math. Biol. 3, 79–85 (1976).

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).

vanDoorn, A. J.

Whittaker, E. T.

E. T. Whittaker, A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies (Dover, New York, 1944).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

J. J. Gibson, P. Olum, and F. Rosenblatt, "Parallax and perspective during aircraft landings," Am. J. Psychol. 68, 372–385 (1955).

Artif. Intell. (1)

B. K. P. Horn and B. G. Schunck, "Determining optical flow," Artif. Intell. 17, 185–203 (1981).

Comput. Graphics Image Process. (1)

K. Prazdny, "Determining the instantaneous direction of motion from optical flow generated by a curvilinearly moving observer," Comput. Graphics Image Process. 17, 238–248 (1981).

J. Math. Biol. (1)

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Visual perception of rigidity of solid shape," J. Math. Biol. 3, 79–85 (1976).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Acta (1)

J. J. Koenderink and A. J. van Doorn, "Invariant properties of the motion parallax field due to the movement of rigid bodies relative to an observer," Opt. Acta 22, 773–791 (1975).

Percept. (2)

W. F. Clocksin, "Perception of surface slant and edge labels from optical flow: a computational approach," Percept. 9, 253–269 (1980).

D. N. Lee, "A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision," Percept. 5, 437–459 (1976).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. (1)

H. C. Longuet-Higgins and K. Prazdny, "The interpretation of a moving retinal image," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 208, 385–397 (1980).

Vis. Res. (1)

J. J. Gibson, "Ecological optics," Vis. Res. 1, 253–262 (1961).

Other (5)

J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1979).

D. N. Lee, "The functions of vision," in Modes of Perceiving and Processing Information, H. Pick and E. Salzmann, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.Y., 1978).

D. N. Lee, "Visual information during locomotion," in Perception: Essays in Honor of J. J. Gibson, R. McLeod and H. Pick, eds. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.Y., 1974).

E. T. Whittaker, A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies (Dover, New York, 1944).

We call possible locations of an observer's eye in the environment the points of observation and a continuous curve connecting such points a path of observation.

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