Abstract

Conjugate wave-front generation by degenerate four-wave mixing has been employed to project images with submicrometer features onto photoresist-coated substrates. The developed patterns demonstrate a resolution of >800 line pairs per millimeter for 413-nm illumination, consistent with theoretical expectations. The patterns are not degraded by speckle or edge enhancement, and the magnification is within 0.1% of unity. Focusing is accomplished by a novel interferometric procedure.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. For an up-to-date review, see the special issue of IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 1319–1725 (August 1980).
  2. B. J. Lin, "Optical methods for fine line lithography," in Fine Line Lithography, R. Newman, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 107–230.
  3. G. R. Brewer, "Electron beam technology in microelectronic fabrication" (Academic, New York, 1980).
  4. R. W. Hellwarth, "Generation of time reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1–3 (1977).
  5. D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
  6. A. Yariv, "Phase conjugate optics and real time holography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14 650–660 (1978); also QE-15, 524 (1979) and references therein.
  7. M. D. Levenson, "High resolution imaging by wavefront conjugation," Opt. Lett. 5, 182–184 (1980).
  8. J. Feinberg, "Real-time edge enhancement using the photorefractive effect," Opt. Lett. 5, 330–332 (1980).
  9. F. A. Hopf and A. Tomita, "Optical distortion due to self-focusing by degenerate four wave mixing in silicon," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 54A (1980).
  10. L. H. Enloe, "Noise-like structure in the image of diffusely reflecting objects in coherent illumination," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 1474–1489 (1967). Also see J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1145–1149 (1976).
  11. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 7.
  12. J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Real time image processing via four wave mixing in a photorefractive medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).
  13. J. D. Cuthbert, Solid State Technol. 20, 59–69 (1977).
  14. J. J. Amodei, W. Phillips, and D. L. Staebler, "Improved electrooptic materials and fixing techniques for holographic recording," App. Opt. 11, 390–396 (1972).
  15. A. Krumins and P. Günter, "Diffraction efficiency and energy transfer during hologram formation in reduced KNbO3," Appl. Phys. 19, 153–163 (1979).
  16. J. P. Huignard et al., "Speckle free imaging in four wave mixing experiments with Bi12SiO20 crystals," Opt. Lett. 5, 436–437 (1980).

1980

F. A. Hopf and A. Tomita, "Optical distortion due to self-focusing by degenerate four wave mixing in silicon," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 54A (1980).

M. D. Levenson, "High resolution imaging by wavefront conjugation," Opt. Lett. 5, 182–184 (1980).

J. Feinberg, "Real-time edge enhancement using the photorefractive effect," Opt. Lett. 5, 330–332 (1980).

J. P. Huignard et al., "Speckle free imaging in four wave mixing experiments with Bi12SiO20 crystals," Opt. Lett. 5, 436–437 (1980).

J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Real time image processing via four wave mixing in a photorefractive medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).

1979

A. Krumins and P. Günter, "Diffraction efficiency and energy transfer during hologram formation in reduced KNbO3," Appl. Phys. 19, 153–163 (1979).

1978

A. Yariv, "Phase conjugate optics and real time holography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14 650–660 (1978); also QE-15, 524 (1979) and references therein.

1977

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).

R. W. Hellwarth, "Generation of time reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1–3 (1977).

1972

J. J. Amodei, W. Phillips, and D. L. Staebler, "Improved electrooptic materials and fixing techniques for holographic recording," App. Opt. 11, 390–396 (1972).

1967

L. H. Enloe, "Noise-like structure in the image of diffusely reflecting objects in coherent illumination," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 1474–1489 (1967). Also see J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1145–1149 (1976).

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei, W. Phillips, and D. L. Staebler, "Improved electrooptic materials and fixing techniques for holographic recording," App. Opt. 11, 390–396 (1972).

Bjorklund, G. C.

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).

Bloom, D. M.

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).

Brewer, G. R.

G. R. Brewer, "Electron beam technology in microelectronic fabrication" (Academic, New York, 1980).

Cuthbert, J. D.

J. D. Cuthbert, Solid State Technol. 20, 59–69 (1977).

Enloe, L. H.

L. H. Enloe, "Noise-like structure in the image of diffusely reflecting objects in coherent illumination," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 1474–1489 (1967). Also see J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1145–1149 (1976).

Feinberg, J.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 7.

Günter, P.

A. Krumins and P. Günter, "Diffraction efficiency and energy transfer during hologram formation in reduced KNbO3," Appl. Phys. 19, 153–163 (1979).

Hellwarth, R. W.

Hopf, F. A.

F. A. Hopf and A. Tomita, "Optical distortion due to self-focusing by degenerate four wave mixing in silicon," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 54A (1980).

Huignard, J. P.

Krumins, A.

A. Krumins and P. Günter, "Diffraction efficiency and energy transfer during hologram formation in reduced KNbO3," Appl. Phys. 19, 153–163 (1979).

Levenson, M. D.

Lin, B. J.

B. J. Lin, "Optical methods for fine line lithography," in Fine Line Lithography, R. Newman, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 107–230.

Phillips, W.

J. J. Amodei, W. Phillips, and D. L. Staebler, "Improved electrooptic materials and fixing techniques for holographic recording," App. Opt. 11, 390–396 (1972).

Staebler, D. L.

J. J. Amodei, W. Phillips, and D. L. Staebler, "Improved electrooptic materials and fixing techniques for holographic recording," App. Opt. 11, 390–396 (1972).

Tomita, A.

F. A. Hopf and A. Tomita, "Optical distortion due to self-focusing by degenerate four wave mixing in silicon," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 54A (1980).

White, J. O.

J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Real time image processing via four wave mixing in a photorefractive medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).

Yariv, A.

J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Real time image processing via four wave mixing in a photorefractive medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).

A. Yariv, "Phase conjugate optics and real time holography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14 650–660 (1978); also QE-15, 524 (1979) and references therein.

App. Opt.

J. J. Amodei, W. Phillips, and D. L. Staebler, "Improved electrooptic materials and fixing techniques for holographic recording," App. Opt. 11, 390–396 (1972).

Appl. Phys.

A. Krumins and P. Günter, "Diffraction efficiency and energy transfer during hologram formation in reduced KNbO3," Appl. Phys. 19, 153–163 (1979).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, "Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).

J. O. White and A. Yariv, "Real time image processing via four wave mixing in a photorefractive medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

L. H. Enloe, "Noise-like structure in the image of diffusely reflecting objects in coherent illumination," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 1474–1489 (1967). Also see J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1145–1149 (1976).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Yariv, "Phase conjugate optics and real time holography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14 650–660 (1978); also QE-15, 524 (1979) and references therein.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

F. A. Hopf and A. Tomita, "Optical distortion due to self-focusing by degenerate four wave mixing in silicon," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 54A (1980).

R. W. Hellwarth, "Generation of time reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1–3 (1977).

Opt. Lett.

Other

For an up-to-date review, see the special issue of IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 1319–1725 (August 1980).

B. J. Lin, "Optical methods for fine line lithography," in Fine Line Lithography, R. Newman, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 107–230.

G. R. Brewer, "Electron beam technology in microelectronic fabrication" (Academic, New York, 1980).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 7.

J. D. Cuthbert, Solid State Technol. 20, 59–69 (1977).

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