Abstract

This psychophysical study explored one possible basis for visually judging the direction of motion in depth. We propose that the changing-size channels precisely compute the algebraic difference between the velocities of opposite edges of a target, thus extracting the velocity component Vz along a line through the eye independent of the trajectory of the target, so that (with added “jitter”) this computation is accurately independent of the component of motion Vx parallel to the frontoparallel plane over a wide range of Vx:Vz ratios. We have no evidence for a complementary channel that computes Vx independently of Vz over any comparable range of Vx: Vz ratios. Our evidence shows that the oscillations of the edges of our stimulus square were equivalent to the oscillation of the square along one of 11 trajectories in depth. All 11 trajectories had the same value of Vz, but the 11 trajectories had different Vx values. In separate experiments, subjects adapted to each trajectory and we measured threshold elevations for two test oscillations, one equivalent to pure z-direction motion and the other equivalent to pure x-direction motion. To a first approximation, threshold elevations for the z-direction test were the same for all 11 trajectories, with the greatest departure from constancy (30%) when two edges of the adapting stimulus were stationary (i.e., equivalent to trajectories that just grazed the eye). Adding an 8-Hz “jitter” oscillation to the 2-Hz adapting oscillation “linearized” the visual response so that threshold elevations were rendered accurately constant (± 5%) for all trajectories tested.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Looming detectors in the human visual pathway,” Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Separable aftereffects for changing size and motion in depth: different neural mechanisms?,” Vision Res. 19, 727–732 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, “The visual perception of motion in depth,” Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size,” Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Regan and M. Cynader, “Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges,” Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Binocular and monocular stimuli for motion in depth: changing-disparity and changing-size feed the same motion-in-depth stage,” Vision Res. 19, 1331–1342 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Sekuler, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological basis of motion perception,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, (Springer, New York, 1978).
  8. Although a perception of motion in depth can be produced either by changing size or stereoscopically by the relative velocity of the left and right retinal images,6the neural computations involved are quite different. We report here that changing-size responses involve an accurate computation of a velocity difference, whereas the stereoscopic motion in depth channel is highly selective to the ratio of left and right image velocities.9–12 This point is illustrated in Fig. 10.
  9. K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space,” J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).
  10. K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “The relation between discrimination and sensitivity in the perception of motion in depth,” J. Physiol. 249, 387–398 (1975).
  11. M. Cynader and D. Regan, “Neurons in cat parastriate cortex sensitive to the direction of motion in three-dimensional space,” J. Physiol. 274, 549–569 (1978).
  12. W. H. Talbot and G. F. Poggio, “The representation of motion in depth in foveal striate cortex of macaque,” ARVO abstracts, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 134 (1979).
  13. A. Pantle and R. W. Sekuler, “Velocity-sensitive elements in human vision: initial psychophysical evidence,” Vision Res. 8, 445–450 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Wolhgemuth, “On the aftereffect of seen movement,” Brit. J. Psychol. Suppl. 1 (1911).
  15. H. B. Barlow and R. M. Hill, “Evidence for a physiological explanation of the waterfall phenomenon and figural aftereffect,” Nature (London) 200, 1345–1347 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 160, 106–154 (1962).
  17. S. Blomfield, “Arithmetical operations performed by nerve cells,” Brain Res. 69, 115–124 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. A. Skavenski, R. M. Hansen, R. M. Steinman, and B. J. Winter-son, “Quality of retinal image stabilization during small natural and artificial body rotations in man,” Vision Res. 19, 675–683 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, “Small saccades serve no useful purpose: reply to a letter by R. W. Ditchburn,” Vision Res. 20, 273–276 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Skavenski et al.18proposed an intriguing functional explanation for their finding that compensatory eye movements are only about 90% rather than 100% effective in cancelling retinal image velocities caused by head movements. They suggested that the gain of the oculomotor compensation mechanism is adjusted to maintain retinal image motion within a range optimal for visual processing. “Gain is never sufficiently high to produce functional image stabilization or sufficiently low to permit images to move too rapidly.”18
  21. H. Spekreijse and L. H. van der Tweel, “Linearization of evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated light by noise,” Nature (London) 205, 913–915 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Spekreijse, “Rectification in the goldfish retina: analysis by sinusoidal and auxiliary stimulation,” Vision Res. 9, 1461–1472 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. H. van der Tweel and H. Spekreijse, “Signal transport and rectification in the human evoked-response system,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 156, 678–695 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Device for measuring eye-hand coordination when tracking changing size,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. (to be published).
  25. We restrict this discussion to the translational motion of a rigid nonrotating body.
  26. K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual sensitivity to the shape and size of a moving object: implications for models of object perception,” Percept. 9, 151–160 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Visually guided locomotion: psycohphysical evidence for a neural mechanism sensitive to flow patterns,” Science 205, 311–313 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, “Small saccades serve no useful purpose: reply to a letter by R. W. Ditchburn,” Vision Res. 20, 273–276 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual sensitivity to the shape and size of a moving object: implications for models of object perception,” Percept. 9, 151–160 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (8)

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Visually guided locomotion: psycohphysical evidence for a neural mechanism sensitive to flow patterns,” Science 205, 311–313 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Skavenski, R. M. Hansen, R. M. Steinman, and B. J. Winter-son, “Quality of retinal image stabilization during small natural and artificial body rotations in man,” Vision Res. 19, 675–683 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Separable aftereffects for changing size and motion in depth: different neural mechanisms?,” Vision Res. 19, 727–732 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, “The visual perception of motion in depth,” Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size,” Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Regan and M. Cynader, “Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges,” Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Binocular and monocular stimuli for motion in depth: changing-disparity and changing-size feed the same motion-in-depth stage,” Vision Res. 19, 1331–1342 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Talbot and G. F. Poggio, “The representation of motion in depth in foveal striate cortex of macaque,” ARVO abstracts, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 134 (1979).

1978 (2)

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Looming detectors in the human visual pathway,” Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cynader and D. Regan, “Neurons in cat parastriate cortex sensitive to the direction of motion in three-dimensional space,” J. Physiol. 274, 549–569 (1978).

1975 (1)

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “The relation between discrimination and sensitivity in the perception of motion in depth,” J. Physiol. 249, 387–398 (1975).

1974 (1)

S. Blomfield, “Arithmetical operations performed by nerve cells,” Brain Res. 69, 115–124 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space,” J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).

1970 (1)

H. Spekreijse, “Rectification in the goldfish retina: analysis by sinusoidal and auxiliary stimulation,” Vision Res. 9, 1461–1472 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

L. H. van der Tweel and H. Spekreijse, “Signal transport and rectification in the human evoked-response system,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 156, 678–695 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

A. Pantle and R. W. Sekuler, “Velocity-sensitive elements in human vision: initial psychophysical evidence,” Vision Res. 8, 445–450 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

H. Spekreijse and L. H. van der Tweel, “Linearization of evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated light by noise,” Nature (London) 205, 913–915 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

H. B. Barlow and R. M. Hill, “Evidence for a physiological explanation of the waterfall phenomenon and figural aftereffect,” Nature (London) 200, 1345–1347 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 160, 106–154 (1962).

1911 (1)

C. Wolhgemuth, “On the aftereffect of seen movement,” Brit. J. Psychol. Suppl. 1 (1911).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow and R. M. Hill, “Evidence for a physiological explanation of the waterfall phenomenon and figural aftereffect,” Nature (London) 200, 1345–1347 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Beverley, K. I.

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual sensitivity to the shape and size of a moving object: implications for models of object perception,” Percept. 9, 151–160 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Visually guided locomotion: psycohphysical evidence for a neural mechanism sensitive to flow patterns,” Science 205, 311–313 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Separable aftereffects for changing size and motion in depth: different neural mechanisms?,” Vision Res. 19, 727–732 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, “The visual perception of motion in depth,” Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size,” Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Binocular and monocular stimuli for motion in depth: changing-disparity and changing-size feed the same motion-in-depth stage,” Vision Res. 19, 1331–1342 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Looming detectors in the human visual pathway,” Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “The relation between discrimination and sensitivity in the perception of motion in depth,” J. Physiol. 249, 387–398 (1975).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space,” J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Device for measuring eye-hand coordination when tracking changing size,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. (to be published).

Blomfield, S.

S. Blomfield, “Arithmetical operations performed by nerve cells,” Brain Res. 69, 115–124 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cynader, M.

D. Regan and M. Cynader, “Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges,” Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, “The visual perception of motion in depth,” Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cynader and D. Regan, “Neurons in cat parastriate cortex sensitive to the direction of motion in three-dimensional space,” J. Physiol. 274, 549–569 (1978).

Hansen, R. M.

A. A. Skavenski, R. M. Hansen, R. M. Steinman, and B. J. Winter-son, “Quality of retinal image stabilization during small natural and artificial body rotations in man,” Vision Res. 19, 675–683 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, R. M.

H. B. Barlow and R. M. Hill, “Evidence for a physiological explanation of the waterfall phenomenon and figural aftereffect,” Nature (London) 200, 1345–1347 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 160, 106–154 (1962).

Kowler, E.

E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, “Small saccades serve no useful purpose: reply to a letter by R. W. Ditchburn,” Vision Res. 20, 273–276 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levinson, E.

R. Sekuler, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological basis of motion perception,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, (Springer, New York, 1978).

Pantle, A.

A. Pantle and R. W. Sekuler, “Velocity-sensitive elements in human vision: initial psychophysical evidence,” Vision Res. 8, 445–450 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sekuler, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological basis of motion perception,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, (Springer, New York, 1978).

Poggio, G. F.

W. H. Talbot and G. F. Poggio, “The representation of motion in depth in foveal striate cortex of macaque,” ARVO abstracts, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 134 (1979).

Regan, D.

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual sensitivity to the shape and size of a moving object: implications for models of object perception,” Percept. 9, 151–160 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Visually guided locomotion: psycohphysical evidence for a neural mechanism sensitive to flow patterns,” Science 205, 311–313 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Binocular and monocular stimuli for motion in depth: changing-disparity and changing-size feed the same motion-in-depth stage,” Vision Res. 19, 1331–1342 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size,” Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Regan and M. Cynader, “Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges,” Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Separable aftereffects for changing size and motion in depth: different neural mechanisms?,” Vision Res. 19, 727–732 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, “The visual perception of motion in depth,” Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Looming detectors in the human visual pathway,” Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cynader and D. Regan, “Neurons in cat parastriate cortex sensitive to the direction of motion in three-dimensional space,” J. Physiol. 274, 549–569 (1978).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “The relation between discrimination and sensitivity in the perception of motion in depth,” J. Physiol. 249, 387–398 (1975).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space,” J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Device for measuring eye-hand coordination when tracking changing size,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. (to be published).

Sekuler, R.

R. Sekuler, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological basis of motion perception,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, (Springer, New York, 1978).

Sekuler, R. W.

A. Pantle and R. W. Sekuler, “Velocity-sensitive elements in human vision: initial psychophysical evidence,” Vision Res. 8, 445–450 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skavenski, A. A.

A. A. Skavenski, R. M. Hansen, R. M. Steinman, and B. J. Winter-son, “Quality of retinal image stabilization during small natural and artificial body rotations in man,” Vision Res. 19, 675–683 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spekreijse, H.

H. Spekreijse, “Rectification in the goldfish retina: analysis by sinusoidal and auxiliary stimulation,” Vision Res. 9, 1461–1472 (1970).
[CrossRef]

L. H. van der Tweel and H. Spekreijse, “Signal transport and rectification in the human evoked-response system,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 156, 678–695 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Spekreijse and L. H. van der Tweel, “Linearization of evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated light by noise,” Nature (London) 205, 913–915 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Steinman, R. M.

E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, “Small saccades serve no useful purpose: reply to a letter by R. W. Ditchburn,” Vision Res. 20, 273–276 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Skavenski, R. M. Hansen, R. M. Steinman, and B. J. Winter-son, “Quality of retinal image stabilization during small natural and artificial body rotations in man,” Vision Res. 19, 675–683 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talbot, W. H.

W. H. Talbot and G. F. Poggio, “The representation of motion in depth in foveal striate cortex of macaque,” ARVO abstracts, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 134 (1979).

van der Tweel, L. H.

L. H. van der Tweel and H. Spekreijse, “Signal transport and rectification in the human evoked-response system,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 156, 678–695 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Spekreijse and L. H. van der Tweel, “Linearization of evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated light by noise,” Nature (London) 205, 913–915 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 160, 106–154 (1962).

Winter-son, B. J.

A. A. Skavenski, R. M. Hansen, R. M. Steinman, and B. J. Winter-son, “Quality of retinal image stabilization during small natural and artificial body rotations in man,” Vision Res. 19, 675–683 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolhgemuth, C.

C. Wolhgemuth, “On the aftereffect of seen movement,” Brit. J. Psychol. Suppl. 1 (1911).

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

L. H. van der Tweel and H. Spekreijse, “Signal transport and rectification in the human evoked-response system,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 156, 678–695 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ARVO abstracts, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (1)

W. H. Talbot and G. F. Poggio, “The representation of motion in depth in foveal striate cortex of macaque,” ARVO abstracts, Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 18, 134 (1979).

Brain Res. (1)

S. Blomfield, “Arithmetical operations performed by nerve cells,” Brain Res. 69, 115–124 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brit. J. Psychol. Suppl. (1)

C. Wolhgemuth, “On the aftereffect of seen movement,” Brit. J. Psychol. Suppl. 1 (1911).

J. Physiol. (4)

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Evidence for the existence of neural mechanisms selectively sensitive to the direction of movement in space,” J. Physiol. 235, 17–29 (1973).

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “The relation between discrimination and sensitivity in the perception of motion in depth,” J. Physiol. 249, 387–398 (1975).

M. Cynader and D. Regan, “Neurons in cat parastriate cortex sensitive to the direction of motion in three-dimensional space,” J. Physiol. 274, 549–569 (1978).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, “Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 160, 106–154 (1962).

Nature (London) (2)

H. Spekreijse and L. H. van der Tweel, “Linearization of evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated light by noise,” Nature (London) 205, 913–915 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Barlow and R. M. Hill, “Evidence for a physiological explanation of the waterfall phenomenon and figural aftereffect,” Nature (London) 200, 1345–1347 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Percept. (1)

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual sensitivity to the shape and size of a moving object: implications for models of object perception,” Percept. 9, 151–160 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

D. Regan, K. I. Beverley, and M. Cynader, “The visual perception of motion in depth,” Sci. Am. 241, 136–151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Visually guided locomotion: psycohphysical evidence for a neural mechanism sensitive to flow patterns,” Science 205, 311–313 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (9)

H. Spekreijse, “Rectification in the goldfish retina: analysis by sinusoidal and auxiliary stimulation,” Vision Res. 9, 1461–1472 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size,” Vision Res. 19, 1093–1104 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Regan and M. Cynader, “Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interactions between the responses to two edges,” Vision Res. 19, 699–711 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Binocular and monocular stimuli for motion in depth: changing-disparity and changing-size feed the same motion-in-depth stage,” Vision Res. 19, 1331–1342 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Looming detectors in the human visual pathway,” Vision Res. 18, 415–421 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Beverley and D. Regan, “Separable aftereffects for changing size and motion in depth: different neural mechanisms?,” Vision Res. 19, 727–732 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Pantle and R. W. Sekuler, “Velocity-sensitive elements in human vision: initial psychophysical evidence,” Vision Res. 8, 445–450 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Skavenski, R. M. Hansen, R. M. Steinman, and B. J. Winter-son, “Quality of retinal image stabilization during small natural and artificial body rotations in man,” Vision Res. 19, 675–683 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kowler and R. M. Steinman, “Small saccades serve no useful purpose: reply to a letter by R. W. Ditchburn,” Vision Res. 20, 273–276 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

Skavenski et al.18proposed an intriguing functional explanation for their finding that compensatory eye movements are only about 90% rather than 100% effective in cancelling retinal image velocities caused by head movements. They suggested that the gain of the oculomotor compensation mechanism is adjusted to maintain retinal image motion within a range optimal for visual processing. “Gain is never sufficiently high to produce functional image stabilization or sufficiently low to permit images to move too rapidly.”18

R. Sekuler, A. Pantle, and E. Levinson, “Physiological basis of motion perception,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, (Springer, New York, 1978).

Although a perception of motion in depth can be produced either by changing size or stereoscopically by the relative velocity of the left and right retinal images,6the neural computations involved are quite different. We report here that changing-size responses involve an accurate computation of a velocity difference, whereas the stereoscopic motion in depth channel is highly selective to the ratio of left and right image velocities.9–12 This point is illustrated in Fig. 10.

D. Regan and K. I. Beverley, “Device for measuring eye-hand coordination when tracking changing size,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. (to be published).

We restrict this discussion to the translational motion of a rigid nonrotating body.

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Figures (10)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

(a) Pure antiphase oscillation of the stimulus rectangle’s edges. This is equivalent to motion along the z axis, that is, motion along a line through the eye [see Fig. 2(a)]. (b) Pure inphase oscillation of the stimulus rectangle’s edges. This is equivalent to motion along the x axis, that is, motion parallel to the frontoparallel plane [see Fig. 2(a)].

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Rationale of Experiments 1 and 2. (a) Motion along an arbitrary direction θ° in depth can be analyzed into an x-axis component Vx and a z-axis component Vz. (b) The seven trajectories shown have different components of motion in the z direction, but identical components in the x direction. (c) The seven trajectories shown have different components of motion in the x direction, but Identical components In the z direction. (Motion components other than those in the plane of the paper are not considered here.)

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Arrangement of stimulus rectangles for pure inphase (a) and pure antiphase oscillations (b) and for two mixtures of inphase and antiphase oscillations [(c) and (d)] that rendered some edges stationary. The oscillations shown in (b) and (a) are equivalent to trajectories, respectively, passing through the eye and at right angles to that direction. The oscillations shown in (c) and (d) are equivalent to trajectories that just graze the eye.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Examples of the stimulus oscillations used in Experiment 2. The amplitudes of the adapting oscillations relative to the size of the rectangle are exaggerated, but the ratios between movements of the left and right edges are to scale. Each oscillation contained an identical antiphase, or z axis, component of amplitude 6 min arc (peak to peak) (i.e., the difference between the oscillation amplitude for the left and right edges was 6 min arc in every case). An inphase component of amplitude 24 min arc (peak to peak) was added in (a), 12 min arc in (b), 6 min arc in (c), 3 min arc in (d), and in (e) no inphase component was added, (f)–(i) show the results of adding an inphase component to the 6 min arc antiphase oscillation with the phase of the inphase component inverted with respect to the inphase component in (a)–(d). The inphase amplitude was 3 min arc in (f), 6 min arc in (g), 12 min arc in (h), and 24 min arc in (i). The ratio between the instantaneous velocities of the left and right edges are shown in each case (VLVR or VR/VL). A negative sign means that the edges always moved in opposite directions.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Oscillations of the stimulus square in Experiment 2 were equivalent to the trajectories illustrated. Direction (a) corresponds to (a) in Fig. 4, etc.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Adapting stimulus oscillations used in Experiment 3. In Experiment 3 an “auxiliary” oscillation was added to the 2-Hz adapting oscillations illustrated in Fig. 4. The auxiliary oscillation was a triangular wave of frequency 8 Hz. A shows the pure inphase oscillation [(e) in Fig. 4], the auxiliary oscillation, and the sum of the two oscillations, (b) shows the oscillation (c) of Fig. 4, the auxiliary oscillation, and the sum of the two oscillations.

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

Threshold elevations produced by separately adapting to nine different oscillations, all of which had the same component of motion along the x axis as illustrated in Fig. 2(b). This x-axis component was a 2-Hz triangular wave of amplitude 16 min arc peak to peak per edge. Abscissas plot the peak to peak amplitudes of the added antiphase (or z axis) component. The dotted line plots threshold elevations for a pure antiphase test oscillation, and indicates the differing amounts of antiphase component in the various adapting oscillations. The continuous line plots threshold elevations for a pure inphase test oscillation, and indicates that the constant 16 min arc inphase component of the various adapting oscillations did not produce a constant threshold elevation independently of the added antiphase component. Each point is the mean of eight settings. Vertical bars show ±1 SE. Subject KIB.

FIG. 8
FIG. 8

(a) Threshold elevations produced by separately adapting to 11 different oscillations in depth, all of which had the same antiphase component of motion as illustrated in Fig. 2(c). This constant component was a 2 Hz antiphase triangular wave of amplitude 6 min arc (peak to peak) per edge. Abscissas plot the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the added inphase component. The dotted line plots threshold elevations for a pure antiphase test oscillation, and indicates that the constant 6 min arc antiphase component of the various adapting oscillations produced a roughly constant threshold elevation independently of the amount of added inphase component, though elevations were somewhat reduced when one or other edges of the rectangle were stationary (at about 6 min arc on the abscissa). The continuous line plots threshold elevations for a pure inphase test oscillation. Each point is the mean of eight settings. (b) Repeat of (a) except that all adapting stimuli had a constant inphase 8-Hz triangular wave oscillation added to the 2-Hz adapting stimuli (Fig. 6). The linearizing oscillation rendered antiphase threshold elevations (dotted line) completely independent of the amount of x-axis motion. Each point is the mean of eight settings. Vertical bars show ±1 SE. Subject KIB.

FIG. 9
FIG. 9

Psychophysical model of the changing-size channel. The motion filters may overlap, but their regions of maximum sensitivity are some distance apart on the retina.4

FIG. 10
FIG. 10

Visual stimuli for difference-sensitive channels and for ratiosensitive channels. (a) Point A in the visual world is imaged onto the left and right retinas, and the left image moves at velocity (VA)L while the right image moves at velocity (VA)R. We proposed9,10 the existence of channels sensitive to the sign and magnitude of the ratio (VA)R/(VA)L. These ratio-sensitive channels would therefore be selectively sensitive to the direction of motion in depth. They can be accessed only binocularly since they operate by comparing the images in the two eyes. Note that the visual signals generated by stimulus (a) and the visual signals generated by stimulus (b) can both generate a sensation of motion in depth.6 These two visual signals converge onto the same motion in depth stage. (b) Opposite edges of a stimulus target are imaged at C and D. Edge C moves at velocity VC, and edge D moves at velocity VD. We propose here the existence of channels sensitive to the sign and magnitude of the difference (VDVc) of the velocities of edges C and D. These difference-sensitive channels extract the component of motion passing through the eye (z-axis component), and can be accessed through either one eye or both eyes.