Abstract

The phase selectivity of spatial frequency channels was measured, using an adaptation technique. Subjects first adapted to a grating of a given spatial frequency; subsequent threshold measurements were made at various spatial frequencies and phase shifts. Changes in the phase relationship between the test and adaptation gratings due to eye movements were circumvented by viewing the gratings through an image stabilization apparatus. Local retinal adaptation was minimized by using an adaptation grating whose contrast flickered sinusoidally as a function of time. We were able to demonstrate channel-like frequency tuning for all conditions studied, but the threshold elevations following adaptation were always independent of the phase shift between the test and adaptation gratings. Our results imply that the channels which are selectively tuned to spatial frequency are not selectively tuned to spatial phase.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier Analysis to the Visibility of Gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).
  2. M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).
  3. N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of Grating Patterns Containing Two Spatial Frequencies: A Comparison of Single-Channel and Multiple-Channel Models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).
  4. A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, "Size Detecting Mechanisms in Human Vision," Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).
  5. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the Existence of Neurones in the Human Visual System Selectively Sensitive to the Orientation and Size of Retinal Images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).
  6. D. H. Kelly and H. S. Magnuski, "Pattern Detection and the Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform: Circular Targets," Vision Res. 15, 911–915 (1975).
  7. For a discussion of bandwidths obtained by various experimenters, see C. F. Stromeyer, III, S. Klein, and C. E. Sternheim, "Is spatial adaptation caused by prolonged inhibition?" Vision Res. 17, 603–606 (1977).
  8. L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, Jr., "The Kinoform: A New Wavefront Reconstruction Device," IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
  9. W. A. Pearlman, "A visual system model and a new distortion measure in the context of image processing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 374–385 (1978).
  10. W. A. Pearlman and R. M. Gray, "Source Coding of the Discrete Fourier Transform," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 683–692 (1978).
  11. J. Atkinson and F. W. Campbell, "The Effects of Phase on the Perception of Compound Gratings," Vision Res. 14, 159–162 (1974).
  12. C. S. Furchner and A. P. Ginsburg, "Monocular Rivalry of a Complex Waveform," Vision Res. 18, 1641–1648 (1978).
  13. J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of Simple and Complex Gratings," Vision Res. 15, 1641–1648 (1978).
  14. R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "An Active Feedback System for Stabilizing Visual Images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med Eng. 19, 29–33 (1972).
  15. R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of Image Stabilization by an Optical-Electronic Feedback System," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).
  16. The luminance distribution across the grating can be expressed as L(x) = L0{1 + m(cos2πƒtt) [cos2π(ƒxx + ø]} where L0 is the average luminance, m the modulation or contrast, ƒt the flicker frequency, ƒx the spatial frequency, and ø is the spatial phase angle.
  17. R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Local Retinal Adaptation and Spatial Frequency Channels," Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).
  18. Although the temporal average luminance of each point on the flickering grating is the same, uneven retinal adaptation could result from the light and dark portions of the pattern, which immediately precede the end of the adaptation period. This effect is minimized at a higher flicker frequency, because the time duration without contrast alternation preceding the end of the adaptation period is reduced.
  19. V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting Afterimages Caused by Neural Adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).
  20. Virsu and Laurinen used gratings whose contrast varied as a square wave, while ours flickered sinusoidally. They studied only very low spatial frequencies (<0.25 cpd), whereas we used 1.5, 3, or 6 cpd. Our display has a green phosphor (P31) while Virsu and Laurinen's is white (P4). Our display has a frame rate of 500 Hz, while theirs is 50 Hz. With a flickering grating the temporal average luminance across the screen differed from the mean by less than 1% for our display and by 3.6% for theirs. None of these differences in display units seem likely to account for the large differences in after-image duration.

1978 (4)

W. A. Pearlman and R. M. Gray, "Source Coding of the Discrete Fourier Transform," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 683–692 (1978).

C. S. Furchner and A. P. Ginsburg, "Monocular Rivalry of a Complex Waveform," Vision Res. 18, 1641–1648 (1978).

J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of Simple and Complex Gratings," Vision Res. 15, 1641–1648 (1978).

W. A. Pearlman, "A visual system model and a new distortion measure in the context of image processing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 374–385 (1978).

1977 (2)

For a discussion of bandwidths obtained by various experimenters, see C. F. Stromeyer, III, S. Klein, and C. E. Sternheim, "Is spatial adaptation caused by prolonged inhibition?" Vision Res. 17, 603–606 (1977).

V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting Afterimages Caused by Neural Adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

1975 (3)

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of Image Stabilization by an Optical-Electronic Feedback System," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Local Retinal Adaptation and Spatial Frequency Channels," Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).

D. H. Kelly and H. S. Magnuski, "Pattern Detection and the Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform: Circular Targets," Vision Res. 15, 911–915 (1975).

1974 (1)

J. Atkinson and F. W. Campbell, "The Effects of Phase on the Perception of Compound Gratings," Vision Res. 14, 159–162 (1974).

1972 (1)

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "An Active Feedback System for Stabilizing Visual Images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med Eng. 19, 29–33 (1972).

1971 (2)

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of Grating Patterns Containing Two Spatial Frequencies: A Comparison of Single-Channel and Multiple-Channel Models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

1969 (2)

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the Existence of Neurones in the Human Visual System Selectively Sensitive to the Orientation and Size of Retinal Images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, Jr., "The Kinoform: A New Wavefront Reconstruction Device," IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).

1968 (2)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier Analysis to the Visibility of Gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, "Size Detecting Mechanisms in Human Vision," Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).

Atkinson, J.

J. Atkinson and F. W. Campbell, "The Effects of Phase on the Perception of Compound Gratings," Vision Res. 14, 159–162 (1974).

Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the Existence of Neurones in the Human Visual System Selectively Sensitive to the Orientation and Size of Retinal Images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Campbel, F. W.

J. Atkinson and F. W. Campbell, "The Effects of Phase on the Perception of Compound Gratings," Vision Res. 14, 159–162 (1974).

Campbell, F. W.

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the Existence of Neurones in the Human Visual System Selectively Sensitive to the Orientation and Size of Retinal Images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier Analysis to the Visibility of Gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

Furchner, C. S.

C. S. Furchner and A. P. Ginsburg, "Monocular Rivalry of a Complex Waveform," Vision Res. 18, 1641–1648 (1978).

Ginsburg, A. P.

C. S. Furchner and A. P. Ginsburg, "Monocular Rivalry of a Complex Waveform," Vision Res. 18, 1641–1648 (1978).

Graham, N.

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of Grating Patterns Containing Two Spatial Frequencies: A Comparison of Single-Channel and Multiple-Channel Models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

Gray, R. M.

W. A. Pearlman and R. M. Gray, "Source Coding of the Discrete Fourier Transform," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 683–692 (1978).

Hirsch, P. M.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, Jr., "The Kinoform: A New Wavefront Reconstruction Device," IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).

Jones, R. M.

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of Image Stabilization by an Optical-Electronic Feedback System," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Local Retinal Adaptation and Spatial Frequency Channels," Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "An Active Feedback System for Stabilizing Visual Images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med Eng. 19, 29–33 (1972).

Jordan, Jr., J. A.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, Jr., "The Kinoform: A New Wavefront Reconstruction Device," IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly and H. S. Magnuski, "Pattern Detection and the Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform: Circular Targets," Vision Res. 15, 911–915 (1975).

Klein, S.

For a discussion of bandwidths obtained by various experimenters, see C. F. Stromeyer, III, S. Klein, and C. E. Sternheim, "Is spatial adaptation caused by prolonged inhibition?" Vision Res. 17, 603–606 (1977).

Laurinen, P.

V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting Afterimages Caused by Neural Adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

Lesem, L. B.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, Jr., "The Kinoform: A New Wavefront Reconstruction Device," IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).

Magnuski, H. S.

D. H. Kelly and H. S. Magnuski, "Pattern Detection and the Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform: Circular Targets," Vision Res. 15, 911–915 (1975).

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of Simple and Complex Gratings," Vision Res. 15, 1641–1648 (1978).

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of Grating Patterns Containing Two Spatial Frequencies: A Comparison of Single-Channel and Multiple-Channel Models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

Pantle, A.

A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, "Size Detecting Mechanisms in Human Vision," Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).

Pearlman, W. A.

W. A. Pearlman, "A visual system model and a new distortion measure in the context of image processing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 374–385 (1978).

W. A. Pearlman and R. M. Gray, "Source Coding of the Discrete Fourier Transform," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 683–692 (1978).

Robson, J. G.

M. B. Sachs, J. Nachmias, and J. G. Robson, "Spatial-frequency channels in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1176–1186 (1971).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier Analysis to the Visibility of Gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

Sachs, M. B.

Sekuler, R.

A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, "Size Detecting Mechanisms in Human Vision," Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).

Sternheim, C. E.

For a discussion of bandwidths obtained by various experimenters, see C. F. Stromeyer, III, S. Klein, and C. E. Sternheim, "Is spatial adaptation caused by prolonged inhibition?" Vision Res. 17, 603–606 (1977).

Stromeyer, III, C. F.

For a discussion of bandwidths obtained by various experimenters, see C. F. Stromeyer, III, S. Klein, and C. E. Sternheim, "Is spatial adaptation caused by prolonged inhibition?" Vision Res. 17, 603–606 (1977).

Tulunay-Keesey, U.

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Local Retinal Adaptation and Spatial Frequency Channels," Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of Image Stabilization by an Optical-Electronic Feedback System," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "An Active Feedback System for Stabilizing Visual Images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med Eng. 19, 29–33 (1972).

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting Afterimages Caused by Neural Adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

Weber, A.

J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of Simple and Complex Gratings," Vision Res. 15, 1641–1648 (1978).

Webster, J. G.

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "An Active Feedback System for Stabilizing Visual Images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med Eng. 19, 29–33 (1972).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, Jr., "The Kinoform: A New Wavefront Reconstruction Device," IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).

IEEE Trans. Bio-Med Eng. (1)

R. M. Jones, J. G. Webster, and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "An Active Feedback System for Stabilizing Visual Images," IEEE Trans. Bio-Med Eng. 19, 29–33 (1972).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

W. A. Pearlman and R. M. Gray, "Source Coding of the Discrete Fourier Transform," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 683–692 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Physiol. (2)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, "Application of Fourier Analysis to the Visibility of Gratings," J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).

C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, "On the Existence of Neurones in the Human Visual System Selectively Sensitive to the Orientation and Size of Retinal Images," J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).

Science (1)

A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, "Size Detecting Mechanisms in Human Vision," Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).

Vision Res. (8)

N. Graham and J. Nachmias, "Detection of Grating Patterns Containing Two Spatial Frequencies: A Comparison of Single-Channel and Multiple-Channel Models," Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).

V. Virsu and P. Laurinen, "Long-lasting Afterimages Caused by Neural Adaptation," Vision Res. 17, 853–860 (1977).

D. H. Kelly and H. S. Magnuski, "Pattern Detection and the Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform: Circular Targets," Vision Res. 15, 911–915 (1975).

J. Atkinson and F. W. Campbell, "The Effects of Phase on the Perception of Compound Gratings," Vision Res. 14, 159–162 (1974).

C. S. Furchner and A. P. Ginsburg, "Monocular Rivalry of a Complex Waveform," Vision Res. 18, 1641–1648 (1978).

J. Nachmias and A. Weber, "Discrimination of Simple and Complex Gratings," Vision Res. 15, 1641–1648 (1978).

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Accuracy of Image Stabilization by an Optical-Electronic Feedback System," Vision Res. 15, 57–61 (1975).

R. M. Jones and U. Tulunay-Keesey, "Local Retinal Adaptation and Spatial Frequency Channels," Vision Res. 15, 1239–1244 (1975).

Other (4)

Although the temporal average luminance of each point on the flickering grating is the same, uneven retinal adaptation could result from the light and dark portions of the pattern, which immediately precede the end of the adaptation period. This effect is minimized at a higher flicker frequency, because the time duration without contrast alternation preceding the end of the adaptation period is reduced.

The luminance distribution across the grating can be expressed as L(x) = L0{1 + m(cos2πƒtt) [cos2π(ƒxx + ø]} where L0 is the average luminance, m the modulation or contrast, ƒt the flicker frequency, ƒx the spatial frequency, and ø is the spatial phase angle.

For a discussion of bandwidths obtained by various experimenters, see C. F. Stromeyer, III, S. Klein, and C. E. Sternheim, "Is spatial adaptation caused by prolonged inhibition?" Vision Res. 17, 603–606 (1977).

Virsu and Laurinen used gratings whose contrast varied as a square wave, while ours flickered sinusoidally. They studied only very low spatial frequencies (<0.25 cpd), whereas we used 1.5, 3, or 6 cpd. Our display has a green phosphor (P31) while Virsu and Laurinen's is white (P4). Our display has a frame rate of 500 Hz, while theirs is 50 Hz. With a flickering grating the temporal average luminance across the screen differed from the mean by less than 1% for our display and by 3.6% for theirs. None of these differences in display units seem likely to account for the large differences in after-image duration.

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