Abstract

The spatial constraints needed to obtain rod-cone interaction under steady adaptation levels apply to transient conditions of adaptation. The influence of cones upon rod threshold, however, is qualitatively different at light onset as opposed to light offset.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. S. Stiles, "Color Vision: the approach through increment threshold sensitivity," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 45, 100–114 (1959).
  2. T. E. Frumkes and L. A. Temme, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—II. Cones influence rod increment thresholds," Vis. Res. 17, 673–679 (1977).
  3. M. Latch and P. Lennie, "Rod-cone interaction in light adaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).
  4. S. L. Buck and W. Makous, "Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds," Suppl. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 153 (1978).
  5. P. Lennie and D. I. A. MacLeod, "Background configuration and rod threshold," J. Physiol. 233, 143–156 (1973).
  6. L. A. Temme and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—III. Rods influence cone increment thresholds," Vision Res. 17, 681–685 (1977).
  7. T. E. Frumkes, M. C. Sekuler, M. C. Barris, E. H. Reiss, and L. M. Chalupa, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—I. Temporal analysis," Vision Res. 13, 1269–1282 (1973).
  8. D. H. Foster, "Rod-cone interaction in the after-flash effect," Vision Res. 16, 393–396 (1976).
  9. M. C. Barris and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—IV. Cones stimulated by contrast flashes influence rod threshold," Vision Res. 18, 801–808 (1978).
  10. T. E. Frumkes and J. F. Sturr, "Spatial and luminance factors determining visual excitability," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1657–1662 (1968).
  11. B. H. Crawford, "Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli," Proc. R. Soc. (London) Sect. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
  12. P. E. Hallet, "Rod increment thresholds on steady and flashed backgrounds," J. Physiol. 202, 355–377 (1969).
  13. Other investigators have claimed to observe rod-cone interaction in the presence of large steady fields or large flashes,4,14,15 but this claim has been disputed.2,3,5,12 To be sure, the illuminance calibration procedure used in this study would obscure small amounts of rod-cone interaction that might be obtained in the presence of large flashes that are independent of delay intervals. Our procedure, however, cannot obscure any rod-cone interaction that is dependent upon delay interval.
  14. W. Makous and R. Boothe, "Cones block signals from rods," Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).
  15. C. R. Ingling, A. L. Lewis, D. R. Loose, and K. J. Myers, "Cones change rod sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 555–564 (1977).
  16. T. W. White, S. A. Kelly, and J. F. Sturr, "Large field early light adaptation," Vision Res. 18, 1679–1684 (1978).
  17. J. F. Sturr (personal communication).
  18. D. Y. Teller and B. Lindsey, "Sensitization by annular surrounds: Individual differences," Vision Res. 10, 1045–1056 (1970).
  19. H. Kolb and E. V. Famiglietti, "Rod and cone pathways in the retina of the cat," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15, 935–946, (1976).
  20. R. Nelson, H. Kolb, E. V. Famiglietti, Jr., and P. Gouras, "Neural responses in the rod and cone systems of the cat retina: intracellular recording and procion stains," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15,946–953 (1976).
  21. R. F. Miller and R. F. Dacheux, "Synaptic organization and ionic basis of on and off channels in mudpuppy retina. III. A model of ganglion cell receptive field organization based on chloride-free experiments," J. Gen. Physiol. 67, 679–690 (1976).
  22. K.-I. Naka, "Functional organization of the catfish retina," J. Neurophysiol. 40, 26–43 (1977).
  23. T. E. Frumkes and R. F. Miller, "Pathways and polarities of synaptic interactions in the inner retina of the mudpuppy: II. Insight revealed by an analysis of latency and threshold," Brain Res. 161, 13–24 (1979).

1979 (1)

T. E. Frumkes and R. F. Miller, "Pathways and polarities of synaptic interactions in the inner retina of the mudpuppy: II. Insight revealed by an analysis of latency and threshold," Brain Res. 161, 13–24 (1979).

1978 (3)

S. L. Buck and W. Makous, "Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds," Suppl. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 153 (1978).

M. C. Barris and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—IV. Cones stimulated by contrast flashes influence rod threshold," Vision Res. 18, 801–808 (1978).

T. W. White, S. A. Kelly, and J. F. Sturr, "Large field early light adaptation," Vision Res. 18, 1679–1684 (1978).

1977 (5)

T. E. Frumkes and L. A. Temme, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—II. Cones influence rod increment thresholds," Vis. Res. 17, 673–679 (1977).

M. Latch and P. Lennie, "Rod-cone interaction in light adaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).

L. A. Temme and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—III. Rods influence cone increment thresholds," Vision Res. 17, 681–685 (1977).

C. R. Ingling, A. L. Lewis, D. R. Loose, and K. J. Myers, "Cones change rod sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 555–564 (1977).

K.-I. Naka, "Functional organization of the catfish retina," J. Neurophysiol. 40, 26–43 (1977).

1976 (4)

D. H. Foster, "Rod-cone interaction in the after-flash effect," Vision Res. 16, 393–396 (1976).

H. Kolb and E. V. Famiglietti, "Rod and cone pathways in the retina of the cat," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15, 935–946, (1976).

R. Nelson, H. Kolb, E. V. Famiglietti, Jr., and P. Gouras, "Neural responses in the rod and cone systems of the cat retina: intracellular recording and procion stains," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15,946–953 (1976).

R. F. Miller and R. F. Dacheux, "Synaptic organization and ionic basis of on and off channels in mudpuppy retina. III. A model of ganglion cell receptive field organization based on chloride-free experiments," J. Gen. Physiol. 67, 679–690 (1976).

1974 (1)

W. Makous and R. Boothe, "Cones block signals from rods," Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).

1973 (2)

T. E. Frumkes, M. C. Sekuler, M. C. Barris, E. H. Reiss, and L. M. Chalupa, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—I. Temporal analysis," Vision Res. 13, 1269–1282 (1973).

P. Lennie and D. I. A. MacLeod, "Background configuration and rod threshold," J. Physiol. 233, 143–156 (1973).

1970 (1)

D. Y. Teller and B. Lindsey, "Sensitization by annular surrounds: Individual differences," Vision Res. 10, 1045–1056 (1970).

1969 (1)

P. E. Hallet, "Rod increment thresholds on steady and flashed backgrounds," J. Physiol. 202, 355–377 (1969).

1968 (1)

1959 (1)

W. S. Stiles, "Color Vision: the approach through increment threshold sensitivity," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 45, 100–114 (1959).

1947 (1)

B. H. Crawford, "Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli," Proc. R. Soc. (London) Sect. B 134, 283–302 (1947).

Barris, M. C.

M. C. Barris and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—IV. Cones stimulated by contrast flashes influence rod threshold," Vision Res. 18, 801–808 (1978).

T. E. Frumkes, M. C. Sekuler, M. C. Barris, E. H. Reiss, and L. M. Chalupa, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—I. Temporal analysis," Vision Res. 13, 1269–1282 (1973).

Boothe, R.

W. Makous and R. Boothe, "Cones block signals from rods," Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck and W. Makous, "Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds," Suppl. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 153 (1978).

Chalupa, L. M.

T. E. Frumkes, M. C. Sekuler, M. C. Barris, E. H. Reiss, and L. M. Chalupa, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—I. Temporal analysis," Vision Res. 13, 1269–1282 (1973).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, "Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli," Proc. R. Soc. (London) Sect. B 134, 283–302 (1947).

Dacheux, R. F.

R. F. Miller and R. F. Dacheux, "Synaptic organization and ionic basis of on and off channels in mudpuppy retina. III. A model of ganglion cell receptive field organization based on chloride-free experiments," J. Gen. Physiol. 67, 679–690 (1976).

Famiglietti, E. V.

H. Kolb and E. V. Famiglietti, "Rod and cone pathways in the retina of the cat," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15, 935–946, (1976).

Famiglietti, Jr., E. V.

R. Nelson, H. Kolb, E. V. Famiglietti, Jr., and P. Gouras, "Neural responses in the rod and cone systems of the cat retina: intracellular recording and procion stains," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15,946–953 (1976).

Foster, D. H.

D. H. Foster, "Rod-cone interaction in the after-flash effect," Vision Res. 16, 393–396 (1976).

Frumkes, T. E.

T. E. Frumkes and R. F. Miller, "Pathways and polarities of synaptic interactions in the inner retina of the mudpuppy: II. Insight revealed by an analysis of latency and threshold," Brain Res. 161, 13–24 (1979).

M. C. Barris and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—IV. Cones stimulated by contrast flashes influence rod threshold," Vision Res. 18, 801–808 (1978).

L. A. Temme and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—III. Rods influence cone increment thresholds," Vision Res. 17, 681–685 (1977).

T. E. Frumkes and L. A. Temme, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—II. Cones influence rod increment thresholds," Vis. Res. 17, 673–679 (1977).

T. E. Frumkes, M. C. Sekuler, M. C. Barris, E. H. Reiss, and L. M. Chalupa, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—I. Temporal analysis," Vision Res. 13, 1269–1282 (1973).

T. E. Frumkes and J. F. Sturr, "Spatial and luminance factors determining visual excitability," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1657–1662 (1968).

Gouras, P.

R. Nelson, H. Kolb, E. V. Famiglietti, Jr., and P. Gouras, "Neural responses in the rod and cone systems of the cat retina: intracellular recording and procion stains," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15,946–953 (1976).

Hallet, P. E.

P. E. Hallet, "Rod increment thresholds on steady and flashed backgrounds," J. Physiol. 202, 355–377 (1969).

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling, A. L. Lewis, D. R. Loose, and K. J. Myers, "Cones change rod sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 555–564 (1977).

Kelly, S. A.

T. W. White, S. A. Kelly, and J. F. Sturr, "Large field early light adaptation," Vision Res. 18, 1679–1684 (1978).

Kolb, H.

H. Kolb and E. V. Famiglietti, "Rod and cone pathways in the retina of the cat," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15, 935–946, (1976).

R. Nelson, H. Kolb, E. V. Famiglietti, Jr., and P. Gouras, "Neural responses in the rod and cone systems of the cat retina: intracellular recording and procion stains," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15,946–953 (1976).

Latch, M.

M. Latch and P. Lennie, "Rod-cone interaction in light adaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).

Lennie, P.

M. Latch and P. Lennie, "Rod-cone interaction in light adaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).

P. Lennie and D. I. A. MacLeod, "Background configuration and rod threshold," J. Physiol. 233, 143–156 (1973).

Lewis, A. L.

C. R. Ingling, A. L. Lewis, D. R. Loose, and K. J. Myers, "Cones change rod sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 555–564 (1977).

Lindsey, B.

D. Y. Teller and B. Lindsey, "Sensitization by annular surrounds: Individual differences," Vision Res. 10, 1045–1056 (1970).

Loose, D. R.

C. R. Ingling, A. L. Lewis, D. R. Loose, and K. J. Myers, "Cones change rod sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 555–564 (1977).

MacLeod, D. I. A.

P. Lennie and D. I. A. MacLeod, "Background configuration and rod threshold," J. Physiol. 233, 143–156 (1973).

Makous, W.

S. L. Buck and W. Makous, "Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds," Suppl. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 153 (1978).

W. Makous and R. Boothe, "Cones block signals from rods," Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).

Miller, R. F.

T. E. Frumkes and R. F. Miller, "Pathways and polarities of synaptic interactions in the inner retina of the mudpuppy: II. Insight revealed by an analysis of latency and threshold," Brain Res. 161, 13–24 (1979).

R. F. Miller and R. F. Dacheux, "Synaptic organization and ionic basis of on and off channels in mudpuppy retina. III. A model of ganglion cell receptive field organization based on chloride-free experiments," J. Gen. Physiol. 67, 679–690 (1976).

Myers, K. J.

C. R. Ingling, A. L. Lewis, D. R. Loose, and K. J. Myers, "Cones change rod sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 555–564 (1977).

Naka, K.-I.

K.-I. Naka, "Functional organization of the catfish retina," J. Neurophysiol. 40, 26–43 (1977).

Nelson, R.

R. Nelson, H. Kolb, E. V. Famiglietti, Jr., and P. Gouras, "Neural responses in the rod and cone systems of the cat retina: intracellular recording and procion stains," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15,946–953 (1976).

Reiss, E. H.

T. E. Frumkes, M. C. Sekuler, M. C. Barris, E. H. Reiss, and L. M. Chalupa, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—I. Temporal analysis," Vision Res. 13, 1269–1282 (1973).

Sekuler, M. C.

T. E. Frumkes, M. C. Sekuler, M. C. Barris, E. H. Reiss, and L. M. Chalupa, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—I. Temporal analysis," Vision Res. 13, 1269–1282 (1973).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, "Color Vision: the approach through increment threshold sensitivity," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 45, 100–114 (1959).

Sturr, J. F.

T. W. White, S. A. Kelly, and J. F. Sturr, "Large field early light adaptation," Vision Res. 18, 1679–1684 (1978).

T. E. Frumkes and J. F. Sturr, "Spatial and luminance factors determining visual excitability," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1657–1662 (1968).

J. F. Sturr (personal communication).

Teller, D. Y.

D. Y. Teller and B. Lindsey, "Sensitization by annular surrounds: Individual differences," Vision Res. 10, 1045–1056 (1970).

Temme, L. A.

L. A. Temme and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—III. Rods influence cone increment thresholds," Vision Res. 17, 681–685 (1977).

T. E. Frumkes and L. A. Temme, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—II. Cones influence rod increment thresholds," Vis. Res. 17, 673–679 (1977).

White, T. W.

T. W. White, S. A. Kelly, and J. F. Sturr, "Large field early light adaptation," Vision Res. 18, 1679–1684 (1978).

Brain Res. (1)

T. E. Frumkes and R. F. Miller, "Pathways and polarities of synaptic interactions in the inner retina of the mudpuppy: II. Insight revealed by an analysis of latency and threshold," Brain Res. 161, 13–24 (1979).

Invest. Ophthalmol. (2)

H. Kolb and E. V. Famiglietti, "Rod and cone pathways in the retina of the cat," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15, 935–946, (1976).

R. Nelson, H. Kolb, E. V. Famiglietti, Jr., and P. Gouras, "Neural responses in the rod and cone systems of the cat retina: intracellular recording and procion stains," Invest. Ophthalmol. 15,946–953 (1976).

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

R. F. Miller and R. F. Dacheux, "Synaptic organization and ionic basis of on and off channels in mudpuppy retina. III. A model of ganglion cell receptive field organization based on chloride-free experiments," J. Gen. Physiol. 67, 679–690 (1976).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

K.-I. Naka, "Functional organization of the catfish retina," J. Neurophysiol. 40, 26–43 (1977).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Physiol. (3)

P. E. Hallet, "Rod increment thresholds on steady and flashed backgrounds," J. Physiol. 202, 355–377 (1969).

M. Latch and P. Lennie, "Rod-cone interaction in light adaptation," J. Physiol. (London) 269, 517–534 (1977).

P. Lennie and D. I. A. MacLeod, "Background configuration and rod threshold," J. Physiol. 233, 143–156 (1973).

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

W. S. Stiles, "Color Vision: the approach through increment threshold sensitivity," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 45, 100–114 (1959).

Proc. R. Soc. (London) Sect. B (1)

B. H. Crawford, "Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli," Proc. R. Soc. (London) Sect. B 134, 283–302 (1947).

Suppl. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. (1)

S. L. Buck and W. Makous, "Rod-cone interaction on large and small backgrounds," Suppl. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 153 (1978).

Vis. Res. (1)

T. E. Frumkes and L. A. Temme, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—II. Cones influence rod increment thresholds," Vis. Res. 17, 673–679 (1977).

Vision Res. (8)

L. A. Temme and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—III. Rods influence cone increment thresholds," Vision Res. 17, 681–685 (1977).

T. E. Frumkes, M. C. Sekuler, M. C. Barris, E. H. Reiss, and L. M. Chalupa, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—I. Temporal analysis," Vision Res. 13, 1269–1282 (1973).

D. H. Foster, "Rod-cone interaction in the after-flash effect," Vision Res. 16, 393–396 (1976).

M. C. Barris and T. E. Frumkes, "Rod-cone interaction in human scotopic vision—IV. Cones stimulated by contrast flashes influence rod threshold," Vision Res. 18, 801–808 (1978).

W. Makous and R. Boothe, "Cones block signals from rods," Vision Res. 14, 285–294 (1974).

C. R. Ingling, A. L. Lewis, D. R. Loose, and K. J. Myers, "Cones change rod sensitivity," Vision Res. 17, 555–564 (1977).

T. W. White, S. A. Kelly, and J. F. Sturr, "Large field early light adaptation," Vision Res. 18, 1679–1684 (1978).

D. Y. Teller and B. Lindsey, "Sensitization by annular surrounds: Individual differences," Vision Res. 10, 1045–1056 (1970).

Other (2)

J. F. Sturr (personal communication).

Other investigators have claimed to observe rod-cone interaction in the presence of large steady fields or large flashes,4,14,15 but this claim has been disputed.2,3,5,12 To be sure, the illuminance calibration procedure used in this study would obscure small amounts of rod-cone interaction that might be obtained in the presence of large flashes that are independent of delay intervals. Our procedure, however, cannot obscure any rod-cone interaction that is dependent upon delay interval.

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