Abstract

The optical properties of globular Sn films on Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> substrates are analyzed. These films are composed of Sn particles with sizes of the order of the wavelength of visible light, and are of interest because of their solar-selective properties. The experimental data show interference-film properties at long wavelengths, and a large diffracted component at short wavelengths superimposed on a Lambertian angular distribution. The calculated properties of finite-conductivity wire gratings in general agree well with the observed film properties; however, at short wavelengths a scalar diffraction model describes the angular distribution of the transmitted diffracted light. In this model the globular film appears to have film-thickness variations, and a coherence length of approximately two globule diameters. With an empirical “shadowing” term removed from the experimental data, this scalar model works well even at relatively long wavelengths (λ/4 ≤ globule radius).

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. R. Zeller and D. Kuse, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2763 (1973).
  2. E. A. Allen, G. D. Scott, K. T. Thompson, and F. Veas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1190 (1974).
  3. R. E. Hetrick and J. Lambe, Phys. Rev. B 11, 1273 (1975).
  4. C. M. Horwitz, Internal Report No. SP75/3, presented at ISES Conference, Los Angeles, Calif., July 1975. C. M. Horwitz, "Solar selective globular metal films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1032–1038 (1977) (this issue).
  5. H. P. Singh and L. E. Murr, Philos. Mag. 26, 649 (1972).
  6. D. J. Stirland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 326 (1966); P. W. Palmberg, T. N. Rhodin, and C. J. Todd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 122 (1967); A. Chambers and M. Prutton, Thin Solid Films 1, 393 (1967).
  7. C. G. Granqvist and R. A. Buhrman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 693 (1975); J. G. Skofronick and W. B. Phillips, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4791 (1967).
  8. A. Guinier and G. Fournet, Small Angle Scattering of X Rays (Wiley, New York, 1955), p. 111 et seq.
  9. C. M. Horwitz, Internal Report No. SP77/4.
  10. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, New York, (1969).
  11. D. E. Barrick, in Radar Cross-Section Handbook, edited by G. T. Ruck (Plenum, New York, 1970).
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965).
  13. A. Guinier, X Ray Diffraction (Wiley, New York, 1963).
  14. R. H. Doremus, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3775 (1966); T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, and A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 13, 261 (1972); P. H. Lissberger and R. G. Nelson, Thin Solid Films 21, 159 (1974); R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
  15. J. I. Treu, Appl. Opt. 15, 2746 (1976).
  16. G. W. Stroke, "Diffraction Gratings, " in Handbuch der Physik (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967), Vol. 29; p. 504.
  17. J. A. Beunen, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Sydney (1976).
  18. A. I. Golovashkin and G. P. Motulevich, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 44 (1965).
  19. A. P. Lenham and D. M. Treherne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 752 (1966).
  20. E. W. Palmer, M. C. Hutley, A. Franks, J. F. Verrill, and B. Gale, "Diffraction Gratings," Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).
  21. R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

1975 (1)

E. W. Palmer, M. C. Hutley, A. Franks, J. F. Verrill, and B. Gale, "Diffraction Gratings," Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).

Allen, E. A.

E. A. Allen, G. D. Scott, K. T. Thompson, and F. Veas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1190 (1974).

Barrick, D. E.

D. E. Barrick, in Radar Cross-Section Handbook, edited by G. T. Ruck (Plenum, New York, 1970).

Beunen, J. A.

J. A. Beunen, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Sydney (1976).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965).

Bracewell, R.

R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

Buhrman, R. A.

C. G. Granqvist and R. A. Buhrman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 693 (1975); J. G. Skofronick and W. B. Phillips, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4791 (1967).

Doremus, R. H.

R. H. Doremus, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3775 (1966); T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, and A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 13, 261 (1972); P. H. Lissberger and R. G. Nelson, Thin Solid Films 21, 159 (1974); R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).

Fournet, G.

A. Guinier and G. Fournet, Small Angle Scattering of X Rays (Wiley, New York, 1955), p. 111 et seq.

Franks, A.

E. W. Palmer, M. C. Hutley, A. Franks, J. F. Verrill, and B. Gale, "Diffraction Gratings," Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).

Gale, B.

E. W. Palmer, M. C. Hutley, A. Franks, J. F. Verrill, and B. Gale, "Diffraction Gratings," Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).

Golovashkin, A. I.

A. I. Golovashkin and G. P. Motulevich, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 44 (1965).

Granqvist, C. G.

C. G. Granqvist and R. A. Buhrman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 693 (1975); J. G. Skofronick and W. B. Phillips, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4791 (1967).

Guinier, A.

A. Guinier, X Ray Diffraction (Wiley, New York, 1963).

A. Guinier and G. Fournet, Small Angle Scattering of X Rays (Wiley, New York, 1955), p. 111 et seq.

Hetrick, R. E.

R. E. Hetrick and J. Lambe, Phys. Rev. B 11, 1273 (1975).

Horwitz, C. M.

C. M. Horwitz, Internal Report No. SP77/4.

C. M. Horwitz, Internal Report No. SP75/3, presented at ISES Conference, Los Angeles, Calif., July 1975. C. M. Horwitz, "Solar selective globular metal films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1032–1038 (1977) (this issue).

Hutley, M. C.

E. W. Palmer, M. C. Hutley, A. Franks, J. F. Verrill, and B. Gale, "Diffraction Gratings," Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, New York, (1969).

Kuse, D.

H. R. Zeller and D. Kuse, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2763 (1973).

Lambe, J.

R. E. Hetrick and J. Lambe, Phys. Rev. B 11, 1273 (1975).

Lenham, A. P.

A. P. Lenham and D. M. Treherne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 752 (1966).

Motulevich, G. P.

A. I. Golovashkin and G. P. Motulevich, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 44 (1965).

Murr, L. E.

H. P. Singh and L. E. Murr, Philos. Mag. 26, 649 (1972).

Palmer, E. W.

E. W. Palmer, M. C. Hutley, A. Franks, J. F. Verrill, and B. Gale, "Diffraction Gratings," Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).

Scott, G. D.

E. A. Allen, G. D. Scott, K. T. Thompson, and F. Veas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1190 (1974).

Singh, H. P.

H. P. Singh and L. E. Murr, Philos. Mag. 26, 649 (1972).

Stirland, D. J.

D. J. Stirland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 326 (1966); P. W. Palmberg, T. N. Rhodin, and C. J. Todd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 122 (1967); A. Chambers and M. Prutton, Thin Solid Films 1, 393 (1967).

Stroke, G. W.

G. W. Stroke, "Diffraction Gratings, " in Handbuch der Physik (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967), Vol. 29; p. 504.

Thompson, K. T.

E. A. Allen, G. D. Scott, K. T. Thompson, and F. Veas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1190 (1974).

Treherne, D. M.

A. P. Lenham and D. M. Treherne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 752 (1966).

Treu, J. I.

J. I. Treu, Appl. Opt. 15, 2746 (1976).

Veas, F.

E. A. Allen, G. D. Scott, K. T. Thompson, and F. Veas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1190 (1974).

Verrill, J. F.

E. W. Palmer, M. C. Hutley, A. Franks, J. F. Verrill, and B. Gale, "Diffraction Gratings," Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965).

Zeller, H. R.

H. R. Zeller and D. Kuse, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2763 (1973).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. W. Palmer, M. C. Hutley, A. Franks, J. F. Verrill, and B. Gale, "Diffraction Gratings," Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 975 (1975).

Other (20)

R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

H. R. Zeller and D. Kuse, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2763 (1973).

E. A. Allen, G. D. Scott, K. T. Thompson, and F. Veas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1190 (1974).

R. E. Hetrick and J. Lambe, Phys. Rev. B 11, 1273 (1975).

C. M. Horwitz, Internal Report No. SP75/3, presented at ISES Conference, Los Angeles, Calif., July 1975. C. M. Horwitz, "Solar selective globular metal films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1032–1038 (1977) (this issue).

H. P. Singh and L. E. Murr, Philos. Mag. 26, 649 (1972).

D. J. Stirland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 326 (1966); P. W. Palmberg, T. N. Rhodin, and C. J. Todd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 122 (1967); A. Chambers and M. Prutton, Thin Solid Films 1, 393 (1967).

C. G. Granqvist and R. A. Buhrman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 693 (1975); J. G. Skofronick and W. B. Phillips, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4791 (1967).

A. Guinier and G. Fournet, Small Angle Scattering of X Rays (Wiley, New York, 1955), p. 111 et seq.

C. M. Horwitz, Internal Report No. SP77/4.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, New York, (1969).

D. E. Barrick, in Radar Cross-Section Handbook, edited by G. T. Ruck (Plenum, New York, 1970).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965).

A. Guinier, X Ray Diffraction (Wiley, New York, 1963).

R. H. Doremus, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3775 (1966); T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, and A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 13, 261 (1972); P. H. Lissberger and R. G. Nelson, Thin Solid Films 21, 159 (1974); R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).

J. I. Treu, Appl. Opt. 15, 2746 (1976).

G. W. Stroke, "Diffraction Gratings, " in Handbuch der Physik (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967), Vol. 29; p. 504.

J. A. Beunen, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Sydney (1976).

A. I. Golovashkin and G. P. Motulevich, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 44 (1965).

A. P. Lenham and D. M. Treherne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 752 (1966).

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