Abstract

Measurements of accommodation and visual resolution were obtained at a number of luminance levels and stimulus distances. With reductions in luminance the eye approached a “fixed-focus” condition of accommodation for intermediate distances, resulting in successively larger errors in accommodation for both near and far stimuli. The visual resolution values were initially affected by both the luminance and distance of the stimulus. Subsequent measurements of resolution, following the correction of accommodative errors, were found to be independent of the stimulus distance. The findings are discussed with regard to the problems of “night myopia” and variations in visual resolution with stimulus distance.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Maskelyne, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 79, 256 (1789).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. G. Heath, Am. J. Optom. 33, 513 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. A. Johnson, Effects of Luminance and Stimulus Distance on Accommodation and Visual Acuity, doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1974).
  4. H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 29, 69 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Kooman, R. Scolnick, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 80 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. R. Levene, R. Soc. London Notes Rep.,  20, 100 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Mellerio, Vision Res. 6, 217 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 34, 347 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. M. Toates, Physiol. Rev. 52, 828 (1972).
    [PubMed]
  10. C. R. Cavonius and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 929 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. T. Hennessy and W. Richards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 97 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. K. N. Ogle, Optics (2nd ed.) (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1968), p. 226.
  13. At large angular rotations (i.e., approaching 90°) the spatial distribution of light transmitted by the grating target departs from a true sinusoidal representation. Hence, rotations greater than approximately 70° were avoided in this study.
  14. W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, Am. J. Optom. 45, 143 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1700 (1970); Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 4, 237 (1972). (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. Ingelstam and S. I. Ragnarsson, Vision Res. 12, 411 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 43, 415 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. N. Charman, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 51, 832 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Due to the chromatic aberration of the eye, it was necessary to apply a correction for the wavelength of the laser light to the accommodation data. With a reference wavelength of 560 nm the correction [according to the tables of R. E. Bedford and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 564 (1957)] amounted to −0.326 D.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. N. Cornsweet, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 165 (1937).
  22. A. S. Patel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 689 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. In order to avoid changes in the accommodative stimulus situation, accommodative error was not corrected with lenses. Instead, the grating target was placed at the distance of the observer’s accommodative response. This did not affect the accommodative stimulus situation, since the exposure duration of the grating was 250 ms.
  24. M. Alpern and H. David, Ind. Med. Surg. 27, 551 (1958).
    [PubMed]
  25. F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 357 (1954).
  26. G. Wald and D. R. Griffin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321 (1947).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).
  28. E. F. Fincham, Vision Res. 1, 425 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 21, 183 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 33, 24 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. M. Otero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 942 (1951).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. H. A. W. Schober, Optik (Weiman) 11, 282 (1954).
  33. G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, Vision Res. 13, 1035 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1097 (1948).
  35. L. L. Sloan, Ophthalmol. Rev. 45, 704 (1951).
  36. G. Westheimer, Ann. Rev. Psychol. 16, 359 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  37. E. Aulhorn and H. Harms, Visual Perimetry, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4, edited by Hurvich and Jameson, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972).
    [Crossref]
  38. I. Borish, Clinical Refraction (3rd ed.) (Professional Press, Chicago, 1970).
  39. J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. J. M. Enoch, R. N. Sunga, and E. Bachman, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 113 (1970).
    [PubMed]
  41. F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 120 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  42. H. W. Leibowitz, C. A. Johnson, and E. Isabelle, Science 177, 1207 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

W. N. Charman, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 51, 832 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

1972 (3)

H. W. Leibowitz, C. A. Johnson, and E. Isabelle, Science 177, 1207 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. M. Toates, Physiol. Rev. 52, 828 (1972).
[PubMed]

E. Ingelstam and S. I. Ragnarsson, Vision Res. 12, 411 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (2)

1968 (1)

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, Am. J. Optom. 45, 143 (1968).
[Crossref]

1966 (3)

H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 43, 415 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Mellerio, Vision Res. 6, 217 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Patel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 689 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (2)

G. Westheimer, Ann. Rev. Psychol. 16, 359 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. R. Levene, R. Soc. London Notes Rep.,  20, 100 (1965).
[Crossref]

1962 (3)

T. N. Cornsweet, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. F. Fincham, Vision Res. 1, 425 (1962).
[Crossref]

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 120 (1962).
[Crossref]

1958 (2)

M. Alpern and H. David, Ind. Med. Surg. 27, 551 (1958).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1957 (2)

1956 (2)

G. G. Heath, Am. J. Optom. 33, 513 (1956).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 33, 24 (1956).
[Crossref]

1954 (2)

H. A. W. Schober, Optik (Weiman) 11, 282 (1954).

F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 357 (1954).

1952 (1)

H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 29, 69 (1952).
[Crossref]

1951 (4)

E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).

L. L. Sloan, Ophthalmol. Rev. 45, 704 (1951).

M. Kooman, R. Scolnick, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 80 (1951).
[Crossref]

J. M. Otero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 942 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1948 (1)

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1097 (1948).

1947 (1)

1944 (1)

M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 21, 183 (1944).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 165 (1937).

1789 (1)

N. Maskelyne, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 79, 256 (1789).
[Crossref]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern and H. David, Ind. Med. Surg. 27, 551 (1958).
[PubMed]

Aulhorn, E.

E. Aulhorn and H. Harms, Visual Perimetry, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4, edited by Hurvich and Jameson, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972).
[Crossref]

Bachman, E.

J. M. Enoch, R. N. Sunga, and E. Bachman, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 113 (1970).
[PubMed]

Baldwin, W. R.

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, Am. J. Optom. 45, 143 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bedford, R. E.

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1097 (1948).

Blair, S. M.

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, Vision Res. 13, 1035 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borish, I.

I. Borish, Clinical Refraction (3rd ed.) (Professional Press, Chicago, 1970).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 357 (1954).

Cavonius, C. R.

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 51, 832 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, H.

M. Alpern and H. David, Ind. Med. Surg. 27, 551 (1958).
[PubMed]

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, R. N. Sunga, and E. Bachman, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 113 (1970).
[PubMed]

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 120 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fankhauser, F.

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 120 (1962).
[Crossref]

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, Vision Res. 1, 425 (1962).
[Crossref]

E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).

Griffin, D. R.

Harms, H.

E. Aulhorn and H. Harms, Visual Perimetry, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4, edited by Hurvich and Jameson, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972).
[Crossref]

Heath, G. G.

G. G. Heath, Am. J. Optom. 33, 513 (1956).
[Crossref]

Hennessy, R. T.

Hilz, R.

Ingelstam, E.

E. Ingelstam and S. I. Ragnarsson, Vision Res. 12, 411 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isabelle, E.

H. W. Leibowitz, C. A. Johnson, and E. Isabelle, Science 177, 1207 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, C. A.

H. W. Leibowitz, C. A. Johnson, and E. Isabelle, Science 177, 1207 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Johnson, Effects of Luminance and Stimulus Distance on Accommodation and Visual Acuity, doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1974).

Knoll, H. A.

H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 43, 415 (1966).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 33, 24 (1956).
[Crossref]

H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 29, 69 (1952).
[Crossref]

Kooman, M.

Leibowitz, H. W.

Levene, J. R.

J. R. Levene, R. Soc. London Notes Rep.,  20, 100 (1965).
[Crossref]

Maskelyne, N.

N. Maskelyne, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 79, 256 (1789).
[Crossref]

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, Vision Res. 6, 217 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morgan, M. W.

M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 34, 347 (1957).
[Crossref]

M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 21, 183 (1944).
[Crossref]

Nadell, M. C.

M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 33, 24 (1956).
[Crossref]

Ogle, K. N.

K. N. Ogle, Optics (2nd ed.) (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1968), p. 226.

Otero, J. M.

Patel, A. S.

Ragnarsson, S. I.

E. Ingelstam and S. I. Ragnarsson, Vision Res. 12, 411 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards, W.

Schober, H. A. W.

H. A. W. Schober, Optik (Weiman) 11, 282 (1954).

Scolnick, R.

Shlaer, S.

S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 165 (1937).

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Ophthalmol. Rev. 45, 704 (1951).

Stover, W. B.

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, Am. J. Optom. 45, 143 (1968).
[Crossref]

Sunga, R. N.

J. M. Enoch, R. N. Sunga, and E. Bachman, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 113 (1970).
[PubMed]

Toates, F. M.

F. M. Toates, Physiol. Rev. 52, 828 (1972).
[PubMed]

Tousey, R.

Wald, G.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, Vision Res. 13, 1035 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, Ann. Rev. Psychol. 16, 359 (1965).
[Crossref]

Wyszecki, G.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. M. Enoch, R. N. Sunga, and E. Bachman, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 70, 113 (1970).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. (7)

H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 29, 69 (1952).
[Crossref]

G. G. Heath, Am. J. Optom. 33, 513 (1956).
[Crossref]

M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 34, 347 (1957).
[Crossref]

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, Am. J. Optom. 45, 143 (1968).
[Crossref]

H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 43, 415 (1966).
[Crossref]

M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 21, 183 (1944).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nadell and H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 33, 24 (1956).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

W. N. Charman, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 51, 832 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Rev. Psychol. (1)

G. Westheimer, Ann. Rev. Psychol. 16, 359 (1965).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, Arch. Ophthalmol. 68, 120 (1962).
[Crossref]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).

Ind. Med. Surg. (1)

M. Alpern and H. David, Ind. Med. Surg. 27, 551 (1958).
[PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 165 (1937).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (10)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 357 (1954).

Ophthalmol. Rev. (1)

L. L. Sloan, Ophthalmol. Rev. 45, 704 (1951).

Optik (Weiman) (1)

H. A. W. Schober, Optik (Weiman) 11, 282 (1954).

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

N. Maskelyne, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 79, 256 (1789).
[Crossref]

Physiol. Rev. (1)

F. M. Toates, Physiol. Rev. 52, 828 (1972).
[PubMed]

R. Soc. London Notes Rep. (1)

J. R. Levene, R. Soc. London Notes Rep.,  20, 100 (1965).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. W. Leibowitz, C. A. Johnson, and E. Isabelle, Science 177, 1207 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

J. Mellerio, Vision Res. 6, 217 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ingelstam and S. I. Ragnarsson, Vision Res. 12, 411 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer and S. M. Blair, Vision Res. 13, 1035 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. F. Fincham, Vision Res. 1, 425 (1962).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

In order to avoid changes in the accommodative stimulus situation, accommodative error was not corrected with lenses. Instead, the grating target was placed at the distance of the observer’s accommodative response. This did not affect the accommodative stimulus situation, since the exposure duration of the grating was 250 ms.

K. N. Ogle, Optics (2nd ed.) (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1968), p. 226.

At large angular rotations (i.e., approaching 90°) the spatial distribution of light transmitted by the grating target departs from a true sinusoidal representation. Hence, rotations greater than approximately 70° were avoided in this study.

C. A. Johnson, Effects of Luminance and Stimulus Distance on Accommodation and Visual Acuity, doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1974).

E. Aulhorn and H. Harms, Visual Perimetry, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4, edited by Hurvich and Jameson, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972).
[Crossref]

I. Borish, Clinical Refraction (3rd ed.) (Professional Press, Chicago, 1970).

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Figures (5)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

The stimulus display. A, grating target. B, laser speckle pattern. C, surround field with annulus and cross hairs.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Schematic representation of the apparatus. S1, S2—tungsten ribbon filament lamps; H—heat absorbing glass; OG1, OG2—opal diffusing glass plates; A1, A2—apertures, serving as secondary sources; SH1, SH2—electronic shutters; L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7, L8—lenses; B1, B2—beam-splitting cubes; A–SF—annulus–surround-field arrangement; G—sinusoidal grating target; FS—field stop; M—first surface mirror; RC—rotating metal cylinder; F—filter holder.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Measurements of accommodative response as a function of accommodative stimulus distance for observers JG, DJ, SK, and FO at four luminance levels. The dashed line represents a direct one-to-one correspondence between the accommodative stimulus and response and the solid arrows indicate the mean response values of the accommodative response in darkness.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Log visual resolution as a function of the accommodative stimulus distance for observers JG, DJ, SK, and FO at four luminance levels. The dashed lines indicate the mean log visual resolution values for each luminance, and the solid arrows represent the mean values of the accommodative response in darkness.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Log visual resolution as a function of accommodative stimulus distance, after correction of errors in accommodation for observers, JG, DJ, SK, and FO at four luminance levels.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Correlation coefficients, with corresponding significance level values, for accommodative error and log visual resolution.