Abstract

The visual phenomena induced by the passage of a pulse of extremely relativistic muons through the vitreous humor have been studied at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The visual phenomena include flashes that range from small crescents of light in the peripheral field of view to large clouds of light that fill the entire field of view as well as bright flashes with dark centers. Three subjects have been exposed to date. Arguments are given to show that the physical mechanism behind these flashes is Cerenkov radiation. Standard psychophysical techniques are used to determine the threshold for muon-induced visual sensations for one subject. Comparison is made with his pion threshold measured under the same condition.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. W. N. Charman and Christina M. Rowlands, Nature (London) 232, 574 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. H. Fremlin, New Sci. 47, 42 (1970).
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    [Crossref]
  7. T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.
  10. P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. J. McNulty, Nature (London) 234, 110 (1971), (1971).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. J. McNulty, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Nuclear Photography and Solid State Track Detectors, edited by M. Nicolae (Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest, 1972), Vol. 1, p. 598.
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    [Crossref]
  14. R. Madey and P. J. McNulty, in Ref. 3, p. 757.
  15. P. J. McNulty and R. Madey, in Ref. 3, p. 767.
  16. G. Wald and P. K. Brown, Science 127, 222 (1958).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. S. Pinsky (private communication).
  18. P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. H. Pirenne and F. H. Marriott in Psychology, A Study of Science Vol. I, edited by S. Koch (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).
  20. E. J. Denton and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 123, 417 (1954).

1975 (1)

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (6)

P. J. McNulty, Nature (London) 234, 110 (1971), (1971).
[Crossref]

G. G. Fazio, J. V. Jelley, and W. M. Charman, Nature (London) 228, 260 (1971).
[Crossref]

W. N. Charman and Christina M. Rowlands, Nature (London) 232, 574 (1971).
[Crossref]

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).
[Crossref]

T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

J. H. Fremlin, New Sci. 47, 42 (1970).

1962 (1)

F. J. D’Arcy and N. A. Porter, Nature (London) 196, 1013 (1962).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, Science 127, 222 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

E. J. Denton and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 123, 417 (1954).

Bailey, J. V.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benson, R. E.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

Bischel, H.

T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bond, V. P.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
[Crossref]

Brown, P. K.

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, Science 127, 222 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budinger, T. F.

T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).
[Crossref]

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

Chapman, P. K.

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

Charman, W. M.

G. G. Fazio, J. V. Jelley, and W. M. Charman, Nature (London) 228, 260 (1971).
[Crossref]

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman and Christina M. Rowlands, Nature (London) 232, 574 (1971).
[Crossref]

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).
[Crossref]

D’Arcy, F. J.

F. J. D’Arcy and N. A. Porter, Nature (London) 196, 1013 (1962).
[Crossref]

Dennis, J. A.

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).
[Crossref]

Denton, E. J.

E. J. Denton and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 123, 417 (1954).

Fazio, G. G.

G. G. Fazio, J. V. Jelley, and W. M. Charman, Nature (London) 228, 260 (1971).
[Crossref]

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).
[Crossref]

Fremlin, J. H.

J. H. Fremlin, New Sci. 47, 42 (1970).

Jelley, J. V.

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).
[Crossref]

G. G. Fazio, J. V. Jelley, and W. M. Charman, Nature (London) 228, 260 (1971).
[Crossref]

Lyman, J. T.

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).
[Crossref]

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.

Madey, R.

R. Madey and P. J. McNulty, in Ref. 3, p. 757.

P. J. McNulty and R. Madey, in Ref. 3, p. 767.

Marriott, F. H.

M. H. Pirenne and F. H. Marriott in Psychology, A Study of Science Vol. I, edited by S. Koch (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).

McNulty, P. J.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
[Crossref]

P. J. McNulty, Nature (London) 234, 110 (1971), (1971).
[Crossref]

P. J. McNulty, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Nuclear Photography and Solid State Track Detectors, edited by M. Nicolae (Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest, 1972), Vol. 1, p. 598.

R. Madey and P. J. McNulty, in Ref. 3, p. 757.

P. J. McNulty and R. Madey, in Ref. 3, p. 767.

Osborne, W. F.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pease, V. P.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
[Crossref]

Pinsky, L. S.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
[Crossref]

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

L. S. Pinsky (private communication).

Pirenne, M. H.

E. J. Denton and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 123, 417 (1954).

M. H. Pirenne and F. H. Marriott in Psychology, A Study of Science Vol. I, edited by S. Koch (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).

Porter, N. A.

F. J. D’Arcy and N. A. Porter, Nature (London) 196, 1013 (1962).
[Crossref]

Rowlands, Christina M.

W. N. Charman and Christina M. Rowlands, Nature (London) 232, 574 (1971).
[Crossref]

Schimmerling, W.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
[Crossref]

Thompson, L. F.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tobias, C. A.

T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).
[Crossref]

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.

Vosburgh, K. G.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
[Crossref]

Wald, G.

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, Science 127, 222 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (1)

E. J. Denton and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 123, 417 (1954).

Nature (London) (6)

F. J. D’Arcy and N. A. Porter, Nature (London) 196, 1013 (1962).
[Crossref]

W. N. Charman and Christina M. Rowlands, Nature (London) 232, 574 (1971).
[Crossref]

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).
[Crossref]

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).
[Crossref]

P. J. McNulty, Nature (London) 234, 110 (1971), (1971).
[Crossref]

G. G. Fazio, J. V. Jelley, and W. M. Charman, Nature (London) 228, 260 (1971).
[Crossref]

New Sci. (1)

J. H. Fremlin, New Sci. 47, 42 (1970).

Science (5)

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, Science 127, 222 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

M. H. Pirenne and F. H. Marriott in Psychology, A Study of Science Vol. I, edited by S. Koch (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).

L. S. Pinsky (private communication).

R. Madey and P. J. McNulty, in Ref. 3, p. 757.

P. J. McNulty and R. Madey, in Ref. 3, p. 767.

P. J. McNulty, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Nuclear Photography and Solid State Track Detectors, edited by M. Nicolae (Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest, 1972), Vol. 1, p. 598.

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

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Figures (11)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Schematic representation of muon-beam transport system at the AGS.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Momentum distribution of beam muons as measured by the hodoscope arrays just upstream of the subject (see Fig. 1).

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Horizontal beam profile. The spatial distribution of muons along the horizontal direction perpendicular to the beam axis. Measurements were made using the hodoscope just upstream of the subject (see Fig. 1).

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Vertical beam profile. The spatial distribution of muons along the vertical direction. Measurements were made using the hodoscope just upstream of the subject (see Fig. 1).

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Logic of the target motor. All commands to the motor were given relative to the AGS duty cycle in order to synchronize the target flips with the arrival of beam bursts. The timing for entrance and exit as well as the in and out speeds of the target could be controlled independently.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Relative numbers of beam muons arriving in a pulse versus the nominal duration of the pulse. Plots are given for different field strengths in two upstream quadrupole magnets. Data obtained for different values of voltage across the windings of the sixth and eight quadrupole magnets, respectively, are represented by: open hexagons—0 and 40 mV, open triangles—0 and 83.3 mV; closed squares—25.1 and 83.3 mV; and closed circles 53.3 and 83.3 mV. All measurements have been normalized to the same number of protons incident at the location of the target. The abscissa represents the time interval between the signals to the motor that initiate target entrance and exit. The open hexagons—0 and 40 mV count rates have been multiplied by 10 for plotting. If drawn on the same scale, all curves intersect about a common point.

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

Beam halo intensity versus beam intensity. Beam muons are defined as coincidences between two 12.5 × 12.5 cm scintillation counters, C and B, placed 1.8 and 3.3 m upstream of the subject, respectively. Halo muons are those that pass through counter C but not counter B. The data plotted include measurements made with a variety of settings on the sixth and eighth quadrupole magnets. The different symbols correspond to the same magnet settings as in Fig. 6.

FIG. 8
FIG. 8

Number of Cerenkov photons with wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm that are generated during the passage of a muon through 1 cm of the vitreous. The abscissa represents the particle’s velocity, v, relative to that of light, c.

FIG. 9
FIG. 9

Orientations of the subject’s head to the beam. In all cases the beam passed through the subject’s right eye.

FIG. 10
FIG. 10

Orientation of beam and retina that results in the subject observing a bright ring of light with a dark center. The incident muons are represented by the five long arrows. The direction that the Cerenkov radiation is emitted in the vitreous is represented by two arrows at 41° to the beam direction. Very little visible Cerenkov light is scattered back to the posterior portion of the retina. The subject observes a bright ring of light that appears to extend to the extreme periphery. There is a gradual transition from the inner portion of the lighted ring to the dark central region.

FIG. 11
FIG. 11

Frequency of seeing curves for subject V. P. The muon data were obtained in orientation 1 of Fig. 10. Data were obtained in a forced-choice mode with catch tests. No affirmative responses were elicited by any of the catch tests. Each data point in the rising portion of the curve represents exposure to about 10 pulses. The same subject was exposed to pions seven months later under similar conditions. The pion frequency of seeing curves are shown for comparison.