Abstract

The visual phenomena induced by the passage of a pulse of extremely relativistic muons through the vitreous humor have been studied at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The visual phenomena include flashes that range from small crescents of light in the peripheral field of view to large clouds of light that fill the entire field of view as well as bright flashes with dark centers. Three subjects have been exposed to date. Arguments are given to show that the physical mechanism behind these flashes is Cerenkov radiation. Standard psychophysical techniques are used to determine the threshold for muon-induced visual sensations for one subject. Comparison is made with his pion threshold measured under the same condition.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. J. D'Arcy and N. A. Porter, Nature (London) 196, 1013 (1962).
  2. W. N. Charman and Christina M. Rowlands, Nature (London) 232, 574 (1971).
  3. P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.
  4. L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).
  5. J. H. Fremlin, New Sci. 47, 42 (1970).
  6. W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).
  7. T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).
  8. C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).
  9. C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.
  10. P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).
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  12. P. J. McNulty, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Nuclear Photography and Solid State Track Detectors, edited by M. Nicolae (Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest, 1972), Vol. 1, p. 598.
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  15. P. J. McNulty and R. Madey, in Ref. 3, p. 767.
  16. G. Wald and P. K. Brown, Science 127, 222 (1958).
  17. L. S. Pinsky (private communication).
  18. P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).
  19. M. H. Pirenne and F. H. Marriott in Psychology, A Study of Science Vol.I, edited by S. Koch (McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 1959).
  20. E. J. Denton and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 123, 417 (1954).

Bailey, J. V.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).

Benson, R. E.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

Bischel, H.

T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).

Bond, V. P.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).

Brown, P. K.

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, Science 127, 222 (1958).

Budinger, T. F.

T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

Chapman, P. K.

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

Charman, W. M.

G. G. Fazio, J. V. Jelley, and W. M. Charman, Nature (London) 228, 260 (1971).

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman and Christina M. Rowlands, Nature (London) 232, 574 (1971).

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).

D’Arcy, F. J.

F. J. D'Arcy and N. A. Porter, Nature (London) 196, 1013 (1962).

Dennis, J. A.

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).

Denton, E. J.

E. J. Denton and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 123, 417 (1954).

Fazio, G. G.

G. G. Fazio, J. V. Jelley, and W. M. Charman, Nature (London) 228, 260 (1971).

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).

Fremlin, J. H.

J. H. Fremlin, New Sci. 47, 42 (1970).

Jelley, J. V.

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).

G. G. Fazio, J. V. Jelley, and W. M. Charman, Nature (London) 228, 260 (1971).

Lyman, J. T.

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).

Madey, R.

R. Madey and P. J. McNulty, in Ref. 3, p. 757.

P. J. McNulty and R. Madey, in Ref. 3, p. 767.

Marriott, F. H.

M. H. Pirenne and F. H. Marriott in Psychology, A Study of Science Vol.I, edited by S. Koch (McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 1959).

McNulty, P. J.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).

R. Madey and P. J. McNulty, in Ref. 3, p. 757.

P. J. McNulty and R. Madey, in Ref. 3, p. 767.

P. J. McNulty, Nature (London) 234, 110 (1971); Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories Report No. 71–0377 (1971).

P. J. McNulty, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Nuclear Photography and Solid State Track Detectors, edited by M. Nicolae (Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest, 1972), Vol. 1, p. 598.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).

Osborne, W. F.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).

Pease, V. P.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).

Pinsky, L. S.

L. S. Pinsky (private communication).

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).

Pirenne, M. H.

M. H. Pirenne and F. H. Marriott in Psychology, A Study of Science Vol.I, edited by S. Koch (McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 1959).

E. J. Denton and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 123, 417 (1954).

Porter, N. A.

F. J. D'Arcy and N. A. Porter, Nature (London) 196, 1013 (1962).

Rowlands, Christina M.

W. N. Charman and Christina M. Rowlands, Nature (London) 232, 574 (1971).

Schimmerling, W.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).

Thompson, L. F.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).

Tobias, C. A.

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.

T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).

Vosburgh, K. G.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).

Wald, G.

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, Science 127, 222 (1958).

Other (20)

F. J. D'Arcy and N. A. Porter, Nature (London) 196, 1013 (1962).

W. N. Charman and Christina M. Rowlands, Nature (London) 232, 574 (1971).

P. K. Chapman, L. S. Pinsky, R. E. Benson, and T. F. Budinger, in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Natural and Manmade Radiation in Space-1971, edited by E. A. Warman (NASA-TMX-2440, 1972) p. 1002.

L. S. Pinsky, W. F. Osborne, J. V. Bailey, R. E. Benson, and L. F. Thompson, Science 183, 957 (1974).

J. H. Fremlin, New Sci. 47, 42 (1970).

W. N. Charman, J. A. Dennis, G. G. Fazio, and J. V. Jelley, Nature (London) 230, 522 (1971).

T. F. Budinger, H. Bischel, and C. A. Tobias, Science 172, 868 (1971).

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, Nature (London) 230, 596 (1971).

C. A. Tobias, T. F. Budinger, and J. T. Lyman, in Ref. 3, p. 1002.

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease, L. S. Pinsky, V. P. Bond, W. Schimmerling, and K. G. Vosburgh, Science 178, 166 (1972).

P. J. McNulty, Nature (London) 234, 110 (1971); Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories Report No. 71–0377 (1971).

P. J. McNulty, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Nuclear Photography and Solid State Track Detectors, edited by M. Nicolae (Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest, 1972), Vol. 1, p. 598.

G. G. Fazio, J. V. Jelley, and W. M. Charman, Nature (London) 228, 260 (1971).

R. Madey and P. J. McNulty, in Ref. 3, p. 757.

P. J. McNulty and R. Madey, in Ref. 3, p. 767.

G. Wald and P. K. Brown, Science 127, 222 (1958).

L. S. Pinsky (private communication).

P. J. McNulty, V. P. Pease and V. P. Bond, Science 189, 453 (1975).

M. H. Pirenne and F. H. Marriott in Psychology, A Study of Science Vol.I, edited by S. Koch (McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 1959).

E. J. Denton and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 123, 417 (1954).

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