Abstract

Analysis of the phase modulation characteristics of electro-optic or acousto-optic waveguide modulators reveals that a significant increase of modulation sensitivity, per unit of applied field, above that of conventional, bulk devices can occur in multimode waveguides with tight confinement. In the limit, an enhancement of as much as a factor of 3 is theoretically attainable. Explicit formulas for relative modulation sensitivity are given for both TE- and TM-mode polarizations, and illustrative curves are presented for a wide variety of structural parameters. Semiquantitative experimental verification of the effect is presented, using results of a GaAs electro-optic thin-film modulator at 10.6 µm.

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  1. Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics, New Orleans, Louisiana, 21–24 January 1974.
  2. W. B. Oldham and A. Bahraman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 278 (1967).
  3. S. Fukunishi, N. Uchida, S. Miyazawa, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 424 (1974).
  4. W. S. C. Chang and K. W. Loh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 463 (1972).
  5. J. F. Lotspeich, Appl. Opt. 13, 2529 (1974).
  6. P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).
  7. D. F. Nelson and J. McKenna, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1967).
  8. W. W. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 228 (1965).
  9. W. E. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3703 (1973).
  10. I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, and L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).
  11. D. B. Anderson and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266 (1971).
  12. P. K. Cheo and M. Gilden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 272 (1974).
  13. P. K. Cheo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 241 (1973).
  14. I. P. Kaminow and E. H. Turner, in Handbook of Lasers, edited by R. J. Pressley (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), Sec. 5.
  15. F. S. Chen, Proc. IEEE 58, 1440 (1970).
  16. F. K. Reinhart and B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 36 (1972).
  17. S. Namba, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 76 (1961).
  18. S. Uehara, Y. Yamauchi, and T. Izawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 19 (1974).
  19. A. Reisinger, Appl. Opt. 12, 1015 (1973).
  20. I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).
  21. J. T. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 788 (1972).
  22. G. B. Brandt, M. Gottleib, and J. J. Conroy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 53 (1973).
  23. J. H. McFee, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 571 (1973).

Anderson, D. B.

D. B. Anderson and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266 (1971).

Anderson, W. W.

W. W. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 228 (1965).

Bahraman, A.

W. B. Oldham and A. Bahraman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 278 (1967).

Boyd, J. T.

J. T. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 788 (1972).

D. B. Anderson and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266 (1971).

Brandt, G. B.

G. B. Brandt, M. Gottleib, and J. J. Conroy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 53 (1973).

Carruthers, J. R.

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, and L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).

Chang, W. S. C.

W. S. C. Chang and K. W. Loh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 463 (1972).

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, Proc. IEEE 58, 1440 (1970).

Cheo, P. K.

P. K. Cheo and M. Gilden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 272 (1974).

P. K. Cheo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 241 (1973).

Conroy, J. J.

G. B. Brandt, M. Gottleib, and J. J. Conroy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 53 (1973).

Fukunishi, S.

S. Fukunishi, N. Uchida, S. Miyazawa, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 424 (1974).

Gilden, M.

P. K. Cheo and M. Gilden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 272 (1974).

Gottleib, M.

G. B. Brandt, M. Gottleib, and J. J. Conroy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 53 (1973).

Izawa, T.

S. Uehara, Y. Yamauchi, and T. Izawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 19 (1974).

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow and E. H. Turner, in Handbook of Lasers, edited by R. J. Pressley (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), Sec. 5.

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, and L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).

Loh, K. W.

W. S. C. Chang and K. W. Loh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 463 (1972).

Lotspeich, J. F.

J. F. Lotspeich, Appl. Opt. 13, 2529 (1974).

Martin, W. E.

W. E. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3703 (1973).

McFee, J. H.

J. H. McFee, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 571 (1973).

McKenna, J.

D. F. Nelson and J. McKenna, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1967).

Miller, B. I.

F. K. Reinhart and B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 36 (1972).

Miyazawa, S.

S. Fukunishi, N. Uchida, S. Miyazawa, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 424 (1974).

Nahory, R. E.

J. H. McFee, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 571 (1973).

Namba, S.

S. Namba, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 76 (1961).

Nelson, D. F.

D. F. Nelson and J. McKenna, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1967).

Noda, J.

S. Fukunishi, N. Uchida, S. Miyazawa, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 424 (1974).

Oldham, W. B.

W. B. Oldham and A. Bahraman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 278 (1967).

Pollack, M. A.

J. H. McFee, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 571 (1973).

Ramaswamy, V.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).

Reinhart, F. K.

F. K. Reinhart and B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 36 (1972).

Reisinger, A.

A. Reisinger, Appl. Opt. 12, 1015 (1973).

Schmidt, R. V.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, and L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).

Turner, E. H.

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, and L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).

I. P. Kaminow and E. H. Turner, in Handbook of Lasers, edited by R. J. Pressley (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), Sec. 5.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).

Uchida, N.

S. Fukunishi, N. Uchida, S. Miyazawa, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 424 (1974).

Uehara, S.

S. Uehara, Y. Yamauchi, and T. Izawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 19 (1974).

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).

Yamauchi, Y.

S. Uehara, Y. Yamauchi, and T. Izawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 19 (1974).

Other

Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics, New Orleans, Louisiana, 21–24 January 1974.

W. B. Oldham and A. Bahraman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 278 (1967).

S. Fukunishi, N. Uchida, S. Miyazawa, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 424 (1974).

W. S. C. Chang and K. W. Loh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 463 (1972).

J. F. Lotspeich, Appl. Opt. 13, 2529 (1974).

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).

D. F. Nelson and J. McKenna, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1967).

W. W. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 228 (1965).

W. E. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3703 (1973).

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, and L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).

D. B. Anderson and J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266 (1971).

P. K. Cheo and M. Gilden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 272 (1974).

P. K. Cheo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 241 (1973).

I. P. Kaminow and E. H. Turner, in Handbook of Lasers, edited by R. J. Pressley (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), Sec. 5.

F. S. Chen, Proc. IEEE 58, 1440 (1970).

F. K. Reinhart and B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 36 (1972).

S. Namba, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 76 (1961).

S. Uehara, Y. Yamauchi, and T. Izawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 19 (1974).

A. Reisinger, Appl. Opt. 12, 1015 (1973).

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).

J. T. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 788 (1972).

G. B. Brandt, M. Gottleib, and J. J. Conroy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 53 (1973).

J. H. McFee, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 571 (1973).

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