Abstract

The brightness of 2° centrally fixated monochromatic lights was measured by three methods: magnitude estimation, in which the observer made numerical estimates of brightness; delayed matching, in which he adjusted the luminance of an achromatic field until it matched the remembered brightness of the monochromatic field; and conventional heterochromatic photometry. The photometry data resemble the CIE <i>V</i><sub>λ</sub> function, but both the estimation and delayed-matching procedures result in substantially higher sensitivities to short-wavelength stimuli. Part of this excess sensitivity is due to scotopic intrusion and can be eliminated by light adaptation. The remaining sensitivity to short-wavelength stimuli resembles the sensitivity of peripheral cones.

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  1. L. E. Marks, Percept. Psychophys. 9, 26 (1971).
  2. C. A. Padgham, Vision Res. 11, 577 (1971).
  3. D. Yager, Vision Res. 10, 521 (1970).
  4. S. S. Stevens, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by W. R. Loewenstein (Springer, Berlin, 1971), Vol. 1, Ch. 7.
  5. S. M. Newhall, R. W. Burnham, and J. R. Clark, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 43 (1957).
  6. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (London, Constable, 1958), p. 203.
  7. L. W. Marks and J. C. Stevens, Percept. Psychophys. 1, 17 (1966); Percept. Psychophys. 4, 315 (1968).
  8. The data shown in the figures may be obtained in tabular form from the authors, or from the National Auxiliary Publications Service, c/o Microfiche Publications, 305 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.
  9. G. Ekman, Studium Generale 16, 54 (1963).
  10. Essentially the same mean sensitivity data can be obtained from the group-brightness-estimation plots (Fig. 1). However, the low-luminance ends of these functions are distorted because some observers' slopes change in this region whereas others do not. To be certain that our criterion fell on thc main part of each observer's estimation function, we first obtained each individual's spectral sensitivity function and then took the mean of these individual functions.
  11. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80 (1952).
  12. H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707 (1957).
  13. B. C. Wilson, Ph.D. thesis, New York University (1964). Cited by D. H. Krantz, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 678.
  14. S. L. Guth, in Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven (AIC/Holland, Soesterberg, 1972).

Burnham, R. W.

S. M. Newhall, R. W. Burnham, and J. R. Clark, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 43 (1957).

Clark, J. R.

S. M. Newhall, R. W. Burnham, and J. R. Clark, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 43 (1957).

Ekman, G.

G. Ekman, Studium Generale 16, 54 (1963).

Graham, C. H.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80 (1952).

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, in Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven (AIC/Holland, Soesterberg, 1972).

Hsia, Y.

H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707 (1957).

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80 (1952).

Marks, L. E.

L. E. Marks, Percept. Psychophys. 9, 26 (1971).

Marks, L. W.

L. W. Marks and J. C. Stevens, Percept. Psychophys. 1, 17 (1966); Percept. Psychophys. 4, 315 (1968).

Newhall, S. M.

S. M. Newhall, R. W. Burnham, and J. R. Clark, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 43 (1957).

Padgham, C. A.

C. A. Padgham, Vision Res. 11, 577 (1971).

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707 (1957).

Stevens, J. C.

L. W. Marks and J. C. Stevens, Percept. Psychophys. 1, 17 (1966); Percept. Psychophys. 4, 315 (1968).

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by W. R. Loewenstein (Springer, Berlin, 1971), Vol. 1, Ch. 7.

Walsh, J. W. T.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (London, Constable, 1958), p. 203.

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson, Ph.D. thesis, New York University (1964). Cited by D. H. Krantz, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 678.

Yager, D.

D. Yager, Vision Res. 10, 521 (1970).

Other (14)

L. E. Marks, Percept. Psychophys. 9, 26 (1971).

C. A. Padgham, Vision Res. 11, 577 (1971).

D. Yager, Vision Res. 10, 521 (1970).

S. S. Stevens, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by W. R. Loewenstein (Springer, Berlin, 1971), Vol. 1, Ch. 7.

S. M. Newhall, R. W. Burnham, and J. R. Clark, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 43 (1957).

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (London, Constable, 1958), p. 203.

L. W. Marks and J. C. Stevens, Percept. Psychophys. 1, 17 (1966); Percept. Psychophys. 4, 315 (1968).

The data shown in the figures may be obtained in tabular form from the authors, or from the National Auxiliary Publications Service, c/o Microfiche Publications, 305 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.

G. Ekman, Studium Generale 16, 54 (1963).

Essentially the same mean sensitivity data can be obtained from the group-brightness-estimation plots (Fig. 1). However, the low-luminance ends of these functions are distorted because some observers' slopes change in this region whereas others do not. To be certain that our criterion fell on thc main part of each observer's estimation function, we first obtained each individual's spectral sensitivity function and then took the mean of these individual functions.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80 (1952).

H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707 (1957).

B. C. Wilson, Ph.D. thesis, New York University (1964). Cited by D. H. Krantz, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 678.

S. L. Guth, in Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven (AIC/Holland, Soesterberg, 1972).

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