Abstract

A general approach to the optical characterization of thin films is developed. A numerical scheme is used to invert sets of optical equations for a stratified medium to solve for the optical constants and thickness of a thin film that is part of the medium. This inversion makes it possible to use any combination of measurements with the required information content. The inversion is essentially exact, and is also used in an error analysis of various optical methods. Several new optical methods involving reflectance and transmittance measurements are described and shown to give improvements in convenience and sensitivity.

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  1. F. Abelès, in Physics of Thin Films 6, edited by Georg Hass and R. E. Thun (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 151–204.
  2. H. E. Bennett and Jean M. Bennett, in Physics of Thin Films 4, edited by Georg Hass and R. E. Thun (Academic, New York, 1967), pp. 1–96.
  3. J. E. Nestell and R. W. Christy, Appl. Opt. 11, 643 (1972).
  4. P. Wolfe, Commun. ACM (Assoc. Comput. Mach.) 2, 12 (1959).
  5. J. G. P. Barnes, Comput. J. 8, 66 (1965).
  6. P. Rouard and P. Bousquet, in Progress in Optics IV, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), p. 163.
  7. F. Abelès, in Ref. 1., p. 183.
  8. H. E. Bennett and Jean M. Bennett, in Ref. 2, pp. 44ff.
  9. W. N. Hansen, Anal. Chem. 37, 1142 (1965).
  10. P. O. Nilsson, Appl. Opt. 7, 435 (1968).
  11. Jean M. Bennett and M. J. Booty, Appl. Opt. 5, 41 (1966).
  12. F. Abelès and M. L. Theye, Surf. Sci. 5, 325 (1966). Also see Refs. 1 and 2.
  13. W. N. Hansen and J. A. Horton, Anal. Chem. 36, 783 (1964).
  14. W. N. Hansen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 380 (1968).
  15. N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1967).
  16. W. N. Hansen, in Progress in Nuclear Energy Series IX, Analytical Chemistry Volume 11, edited by H. A. Elion and D. C. Stewart (Pergamon, New York, 1972), pp. 29ff.
  17. W. N. Hansen, in Symposium of the Faraday Society No. 4 (The Faraday Society, London, 1970).
  18. J. G. P. Barnes, Comput. J. 8, 66 (1965).
  19. A. S. Householder, The Theory of Matrices in Numerical Analysis (Ginn, New York, 1964).

Abelès, F.

F. Abelès and M. L. Theye, Surf. Sci. 5, 325 (1966). Also see Refs. 1 and 2.

F. Abelès, in Physics of Thin Films 6, edited by Georg Hass and R. E. Thun (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 151–204.

F. Abelès, in Ref. 1., p. 183.

Barnes, J. G. P.

J. G. P. Barnes, Comput. J. 8, 66 (1965).

J. G. P. Barnes, Comput. J. 8, 66 (1965).

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett and Jean M. Bennett, in Physics of Thin Films 4, edited by Georg Hass and R. E. Thun (Academic, New York, 1967), pp. 1–96.

H. E. Bennett and Jean M. Bennett, in Ref. 2, pp. 44ff.

Bennett, Jean M.

H. E. Bennett and Jean M. Bennett, in Ref. 2, pp. 44ff.

Jean M. Bennett and M. J. Booty, Appl. Opt. 5, 41 (1966).

H. E. Bennett and Jean M. Bennett, in Physics of Thin Films 4, edited by Georg Hass and R. E. Thun (Academic, New York, 1967), pp. 1–96.

Booty, M. J.

Jean M. Bennett and M. J. Booty, Appl. Opt. 5, 41 (1966).

Bousquet, P.

P. Rouard and P. Bousquet, in Progress in Optics IV, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), p. 163.

Christy, R. W.

J. E. Nestell and R. W. Christy, Appl. Opt. 11, 643 (1972).

Hansen, W. N.

W. N. Hansen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 380 (1968).

W. N. Hansen, in Progress in Nuclear Energy Series IX, Analytical Chemistry Volume 11, edited by H. A. Elion and D. C. Stewart (Pergamon, New York, 1972), pp. 29ff.

W. N. Hansen, Anal. Chem. 37, 1142 (1965).

W. N. Hansen, in Symposium of the Faraday Society No. 4 (The Faraday Society, London, 1970).

W. N. Hansen and J. A. Horton, Anal. Chem. 36, 783 (1964).

Harrick, N. J.

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1967).

Horton, J. A.

W. N. Hansen and J. A. Horton, Anal. Chem. 36, 783 (1964).

Householder, A. S.

A. S. Householder, The Theory of Matrices in Numerical Analysis (Ginn, New York, 1964).

Nestell, J. E.

J. E. Nestell and R. W. Christy, Appl. Opt. 11, 643 (1972).

Nilsson, P. O.

P. O. Nilsson, Appl. Opt. 7, 435 (1968).

Rouard, P.

P. Rouard and P. Bousquet, in Progress in Optics IV, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), p. 163.

Theye, M. L.

F. Abelès and M. L. Theye, Surf. Sci. 5, 325 (1966). Also see Refs. 1 and 2.

Wolfe, P.

P. Wolfe, Commun. ACM (Assoc. Comput. Mach.) 2, 12 (1959).

Other (19)

F. Abelès, in Physics of Thin Films 6, edited by Georg Hass and R. E. Thun (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 151–204.

H. E. Bennett and Jean M. Bennett, in Physics of Thin Films 4, edited by Georg Hass and R. E. Thun (Academic, New York, 1967), pp. 1–96.

J. E. Nestell and R. W. Christy, Appl. Opt. 11, 643 (1972).

P. Wolfe, Commun. ACM (Assoc. Comput. Mach.) 2, 12 (1959).

J. G. P. Barnes, Comput. J. 8, 66 (1965).

P. Rouard and P. Bousquet, in Progress in Optics IV, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), p. 163.

F. Abelès, in Ref. 1., p. 183.

H. E. Bennett and Jean M. Bennett, in Ref. 2, pp. 44ff.

W. N. Hansen, Anal. Chem. 37, 1142 (1965).

P. O. Nilsson, Appl. Opt. 7, 435 (1968).

Jean M. Bennett and M. J. Booty, Appl. Opt. 5, 41 (1966).

F. Abelès and M. L. Theye, Surf. Sci. 5, 325 (1966). Also see Refs. 1 and 2.

W. N. Hansen and J. A. Horton, Anal. Chem. 36, 783 (1964).

W. N. Hansen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 380 (1968).

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1967).

W. N. Hansen, in Progress in Nuclear Energy Series IX, Analytical Chemistry Volume 11, edited by H. A. Elion and D. C. Stewart (Pergamon, New York, 1972), pp. 29ff.

W. N. Hansen, in Symposium of the Faraday Society No. 4 (The Faraday Society, London, 1970).

J. G. P. Barnes, Comput. J. 8, 66 (1965).

A. S. Householder, The Theory of Matrices in Numerical Analysis (Ginn, New York, 1964).

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