Abstract

The thermodynamic data for the lanthanide and actinide metals have been combined with spectroscopic data to develop a method of estimating the energies of the electronic configurations of the neutral gaseous atoms. Energies are tabulated for the lowest spectroscopic level of each configuration. Many of the odd terms of La i have been reclassified.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Brewer, in High-Strength Materials, edited by V. F. Zackay(Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 12–103.
  2. L. Brewer, in Phase Stability in Metals and Alloys, edited by P. Rudman, J. Stringer, and R. I. Jaffee(McGraw–Hill, New York, 1967), pp. 39–61, 241–9, 344–6, and 560–8.
  3. L. Brewer, Science 161, 115 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L. Brewer, in Plutonium 1970 and Other Actinides, TMS Nuclear Metallurgy Series, Vol. 17, edited by W. N. Miner (Metallurgical Soc. AIME, New York, 1970), pp. 650–658.
  5. W. H. Zachariasen, in The Metal Plutonium, edited by A. S. Coffenberry and W. N. Miner(Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961), p. 99.
  6. B. B. Cunningham and J. C. Wallman, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 26, 271 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Hultgren, R. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, and K. K. Kelley, Selected Values for the Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (Wiley, New York, 1963), and supplements issued in loose-leaf form at irregular intervals since 1963.
  8. G. Racah, Cours au College de France, Paris, 1964, as reported in Ref. 9.
  9. P. Camus, J. Phys. (France) 27, 717 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Fred, Advan. Chem. Ser. 71, 180 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Nir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 354 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Blaise, private communication, November1970.
  13. L. J. Nugent and K. L. Vander Sluis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1112 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. E. Moore, Bibliography of the Analyses of Optical Atomic Spectra, Section 4, Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 305-4 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1969).
  15. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. III, Natl. Bur. Std. U. S. Circ. 467 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1958).

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

1968 (1)

L. Brewer, Science 161, 115 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

M. Fred, Advan. Chem. Ser. 71, 180 (1967).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

P. Camus, J. Phys. (France) 27, 717 (1966).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

B. B. Cunningham and J. C. Wallman, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 26, 271 (1964).
[Crossref]

Anderson, P. D.

R. Hultgren, R. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, and K. K. Kelley, Selected Values for the Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (Wiley, New York, 1963), and supplements issued in loose-leaf form at irregular intervals since 1963.

Blaise, J.

J. Blaise, private communication, November1970.

Brewer, L.

L. Brewer, Science 161, 115 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Brewer, in Plutonium 1970 and Other Actinides, TMS Nuclear Metallurgy Series, Vol. 17, edited by W. N. Miner (Metallurgical Soc. AIME, New York, 1970), pp. 650–658.

L. Brewer, in High-Strength Materials, edited by V. F. Zackay(Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 12–103.

L. Brewer, in Phase Stability in Metals and Alloys, edited by P. Rudman, J. Stringer, and R. I. Jaffee(McGraw–Hill, New York, 1967), pp. 39–61, 241–9, 344–6, and 560–8.

Camus, P.

P. Camus, J. Phys. (France) 27, 717 (1966).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, B. B.

B. B. Cunningham and J. C. Wallman, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 26, 271 (1964).
[Crossref]

Fred, M.

M. Fred, Advan. Chem. Ser. 71, 180 (1967).
[Crossref]

Hultgren, R.

R. Hultgren, R. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, and K. K. Kelley, Selected Values for the Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (Wiley, New York, 1963), and supplements issued in loose-leaf form at irregular intervals since 1963.

Kelley, K. K.

R. Hultgren, R. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, and K. K. Kelley, Selected Values for the Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (Wiley, New York, 1963), and supplements issued in loose-leaf form at irregular intervals since 1963.

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Bibliography of the Analyses of Optical Atomic Spectra, Section 4, Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 305-4 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1969).

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. III, Natl. Bur. Std. U. S. Circ. 467 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1958).

Nir, S.

Nugent, L. J.

Orr, R. L.

R. Hultgren, R. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, and K. K. Kelley, Selected Values for the Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (Wiley, New York, 1963), and supplements issued in loose-leaf form at irregular intervals since 1963.

Racah, G.

G. Racah, Cours au College de France, Paris, 1964, as reported in Ref. 9.

Vander Sluis, K. L.

Wallman, J. C.

B. B. Cunningham and J. C. Wallman, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 26, 271 (1964).
[Crossref]

Zachariasen, W. H.

W. H. Zachariasen, in The Metal Plutonium, edited by A. S. Coffenberry and W. N. Miner(Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961), p. 99.

Advan. Chem. Ser. (1)

M. Fred, Advan. Chem. Ser. 71, 180 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. (1)

B. B. Cunningham and J. C. Wallman, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 26, 271 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. (France) (1)

P. Camus, J. Phys. (France) 27, 717 (1966).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

L. Brewer, Science 161, 115 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

L. Brewer, in Plutonium 1970 and Other Actinides, TMS Nuclear Metallurgy Series, Vol. 17, edited by W. N. Miner (Metallurgical Soc. AIME, New York, 1970), pp. 650–658.

W. H. Zachariasen, in The Metal Plutonium, edited by A. S. Coffenberry and W. N. Miner(Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961), p. 99.

L. Brewer, in High-Strength Materials, edited by V. F. Zackay(Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 12–103.

L. Brewer, in Phase Stability in Metals and Alloys, edited by P. Rudman, J. Stringer, and R. I. Jaffee(McGraw–Hill, New York, 1967), pp. 39–61, 241–9, 344–6, and 560–8.

J. Blaise, private communication, November1970.

R. Hultgren, R. L. Orr, P. D. Anderson, and K. K. Kelley, Selected Values for the Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys (Wiley, New York, 1963), and supplements issued in loose-leaf form at irregular intervals since 1963.

G. Racah, Cours au College de France, Paris, 1964, as reported in Ref. 9.

C. E. Moore, Bibliography of the Analyses of Optical Atomic Spectra, Section 4, Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.) Spec. Publ. 305-4 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1969).

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Vol. III, Natl. Bur. Std. U. S. Circ. 467 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1958).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Melting points and enthalpies of sublimation of the lanthanide metals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energies of lowest levels of electronic configurations of lanthanide atoms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Melting points and bonding energies of the lanthanide metals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Valence-state bonding energy of the lanthanide metals in hexagonal close-packed (HCP) and body-centered cubic (BCC) structures. ■ HCP (dsp); ● BCC (d1.5sp0.5); I Uncertainty in spectroscopic data for fn−3dsp or in ΔHsubl; ↕ Uncertainty in spectroscopic data for fn−3d2s or in ΔHsubl.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energies of the lowest levels of configurations of different valency for the lanthanide and actinide atoms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Energies of the lowest levels of the divalent configuration of the lanthanide atoms.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Energies of the lowest levels of the divalent configurations of the actinide atoms.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Energies of the lowest levels of the trivalent configurations of the lanthanide atoms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Energies of the lowest levels of the trivalent configurations of the actinide atoms.

Tables (31)

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Table I La i, 103 cm−1.a,b

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Table II Ce i, 103 cm−1.a,b

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Table III Pr i, 103 cm−1.

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Table IV Nd i, 103 cm−1.ad

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Table V Pm i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table VI Sm i, 103 cm−1.ac

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Table VII Eu i, 103 cm−1.ac

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Table VIII Gd i, 103 cm−1.af

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Table IX Tb i, 103 cm−1.ac

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Table X Dy i, 103 cm−1.ae

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Table XI Ho i, 103 cm−1.

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Table XII Er i, 103cm−1.ae

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Table XIII Tm i, 103 cm−1.ad

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Table XIV Yb i, 103 cm−1.ac

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Table XV Lu i, 103 cm−1.a,b

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Table XVI Ac i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table XVII Th i, 103 cm−1.ac

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Table XVIII Pa i, 103 cm−1.a,b

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Table XIX U i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table XX Np i, 103 cm−1.a

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TABLE XXI Pu i, 103 cm−1.ac

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Table XXII Am i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table XXIII Cm i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table XXIV Bk i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table XXV Cf i, 103 cm−1.a,b

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Table XXVI Es i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table XXVII Fm i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table XXVIII Md i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table XXIX No i, 103 cm−1.a

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Table XXX Lr i, 103 cm−1.

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Table XXXI Assignment of La i odd levels to the fds configuration.